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P\§sf sImÃp¶ IoS\min\n \nba§Ä
tUm. tPmkv tPmk^v

{]^kÀ B³Uv slUv, hnÚm\hym]\hn`mKw, ImÀjnI tImfPv, ]S¶¡mSv


F³tUmkÄ^m³ DÄs¸sS XeapdIsf ZpcnX¯nemgv¯p¶ IoS\min\n Zpc´§Ä XpSÀ¡Ybmbn amdpt¼mgpw cmPys¯ IoS\min\n\nb{´W \nba§Ä C¶pw Ip¯gnªXmbn XpScp¶psh¶v ]T\ dnt¸mÀ«v. Hmtcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm IoS\min\nbpsSbpw A\phZ\obamb AhinjvS hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¡msX IoS\min\nIÄ¡v Ct¸mgpw cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xmbn \yqUÂlnbnse skâÀ t^mÀ kb³kv B³Uv F³htbm¬saâv (knFkvC) ASp¯Ime¯v ]pd¯nd¡nb Hcp dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ hmWnPy]cambn ]pd¯nd¡m³ A\paXn \ÂIn¡gnªXn\p tijhpw aXnbmb kpc£m]T\§Ä \S¯mdnÃ. IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmKs¯¡pdn¨v Kh¬saâv hnÚm\hym]\ GP³knIÄ IÀjIÀ¡nSbn \S¯p¶ t_m[h¡cW ]cn]mSnIÄ XoÀ¯pw A]cym]vXamWv. GsXÃmw hnfIfn {]tbmKn¡p¶Xn\mtWm Hcp IoS\min\n¡v tI{µ C³skIvSnsskkv t_mÀUv cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂInbncn¡p¶Xv B hnfIfneÃmsX aäp hnfIfnepw AtX IoS\min\n Xfn¡p¶Xn\v ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpw hnhn[ t_mÀUpIfpw in]mÀi \ÂIp¶Xmbpw knFkvC bpsS ]T\ dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. {]mtZinI Xe¯n \S¯p¶ ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv cPnkvt{Sj\nÃm¯ hnfIfnepw IoS\min\nIÄ in]mÀi sN¿p¶sX¶v ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ AhImis¸Sp¶psWvS¦nepw ]et¸mgpw C¯cw ]T\§Ä \S¡mdnÃ. IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmK¯n\p thWvSn F«phÀjw ap¼v tPmbnâv ]mÀesaâdn I½än (sP]nkn) kaÀ¸n¨ \nÀt±i§Ä Ct¸mgpw \S¸m¡nbn«nCsöpw knFkv dnt¸mÀ«v shfns¸Sp¯p¶p.

kzX{´ C´ybn dnt¸mÀ«v sN¿s¸« BZys¯ h³IoS\min\n Zpc´w kw`hn¨Xv tIcf¯nembncp¶p. 1958  102 t]cpsS Poh³ A]lcn¨ Cu IoS\min\n Zpc´¯n\p ImcWw Atacn¡bn \n¶pw I¸en Cd¡paXnsNbvX `£yhkvXp¡fn CussX³ ]mc¯tbm¬ F¶ IoS\min\n IeÀ¶Xmbncp¶p. F¶m cmPy¯v ka{Kamb Hcp IoS\min\n \nba¯n\v cq]w \ÂIm³ hoWvSpw 10 hÀjw IqSn thWvSnh¶p. cWvSp I½oj\pIfpsS {]hÀ¯\¯n\p tijamWv 1968  cmPys¯ IoS\min\n \nba¯n\v cq]w \ÂInbXv. Cu \nba§Ä \S¸m¡p¶Xn\pÅ A\p_Ô N«§Ä 1971  am{XamWv \nehn h¶Xv. ^coZm_mZv BØm\ambn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUmWv \nbaw \S¸m¡m\pÅ GP³kn. t_mÀUnsâ IognepÅ cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ A\phZn¡p¶p. Hcp ]pXnb IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xn\p ap¼v AXnsâ ]mcnØnXnI {]XymLmX§Ä, {]tXyI IoS¯ns\XnscbpÅ Imcy£aamb {]hÀ¯\w, Ahjn]vX hnjmwiw XpS§nbhsb¡pdn¨v hniZamb ]T\§Ä \S¯n hnhc§Ä tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän¡v kaÀ¸n¨ncn¡Ww. iàamb kpc£m]co£W§Ä \S¯Wsa¶v ISemkn \nbaapsWvS¦nepw ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIm\pÅ kpc£m]co£W§Ä ]et¸mgpw {]lk\ambn amdp¶p. I¼\nIÄ \ÂIp¶ ]co£Whnhc§Ä \njv]£amb hniIe\¯n\p hnt[bam¡msX AtX]Sn apJhnebvs¡Sp¯psImWvSmWv an¡t¸mgpw cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xv. IoS\min\n hn]Wnbnend¡p¶Xn\p ap¼p hsc am{Xsa kpc£m ]T\§Ä \S¯mdpÅp. Irjn¡mcnse¯p¶ IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£m]T\w \S¯p¶Xv tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ D¯chmZnXztabÃ.

]©m_nse ImÀjnI taJebmb `«n³Ubn \n¶pw cmPØm\nse _n¡m\dnte¡pÅ s{Sbn³ \¼À 339 "Im³kÀ s{Sbn³' F¶mWv Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. Cu s{Sbn³ `«n³Ubn \n¶pw Znhtk\ 70 Im³kÀ tcmKnIsf hoXw _n¡m\dnse doPW Im³kÀ skâdnte¡p sImWvSpt]mIp¶p. 1960 Ifnepw 70Ifnepw AanXamb IoS\min\n {]tbmK¯neqsS lcnXhn¹hw Act§dnb `«n³Ubnse {Kma§fn \n¶pÅhcmWv Cu Im³kÀ tcmKnIÄ. ]©m_nse `«n³Ubpw tIcf¯nse ImkÀtKmUpw t]mse cmPys¯ Nne taJeIfn IoS\min\nIfpsS A\nb{´nX D]tbmKw Zpc´w hnXbv¡pt¼mÄ AXpXSbp¶Xn\v XnI¨pw A]cym]vXamWv \nehnepÅ IoS\min\n \nb{´W \nba§Ä. Hcn¡Â Irjn¡mcnse¯n¡gnªm GXp IoS\min\nbpw A\nb{´nXambn hn¡m\pw GXp hnfbnepw Aimkv{Xobambn D]tbmKn¡m\papÅ A]ISIcamb kmlNcyw Ct¸mgpw \ne\n¡p¶p. IoS\min\n tem_nbpsS iàamb k½À±w ImcWw \nehnepÅ \nbaw ]gpXS¨p \S¸m¡mt\m Imem\pkrXambn ]cnjvIcn¡mt\m km[n¡p¶nÃ.

C´ybn Ct¸mÄ cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶ 241 IoS\min\nIfn 59 F®¯n\v ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¨n«nsöv knFkvC bpsS dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. hnfIfn {]tbmKn¡p¶ IoS\min\nIÄ ]qÀ®ambpw hnLSn¨p t]mImsX hfscs¨dnsbmcp Awiw a®nepw sNSnIfnepw Iptd¡met¯s¡¦nepw Ahtijn¡pw. a\pjyÀ¡pw PohnIÄ¡pw A]ISIcamIm¯ ChbpsS Afhns\ ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n (FwBÀFÂ) AYhm amIvknaw sdknUyq enanäv) F¶p hnfn¡p¶p. \à IrjncoXnIÄ ]n´pSÀ¶Xn\p tijhpw hnfIfn ImWs¸Sp¶ Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ A\phZ\obamb ]cn[nbmWv FwBÀFÂ. ]pXnb IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ e`n¡m³ FwBÀF kw_Ôn¨ hnhc§Ä A\phmcyasænepw 2004 apX CXv \nÀ_Ôam¡psa¶v tI{µ Irjn a{´mebw Dd¸p \ÂInbncp¶p. Cu \n_Ô\ C\nbpw \S¸m¡nbn«nÃ. F¶mÂ, \nch[n hnhmZ§Ä¡ptijhpw FwBÀF kw_Ôn¨ hnhc§Ä CÃmsX Xs¶ cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶ ]Xnhv cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän Ct¸mgpw XpScpIbmWv.

cPnÌÀ sNbvX FÃm IoS\min\nIfpsSbpw A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¡m\pÅ D¯chmZnXzw ^pUv tk^vän B³Uv Ìm³UmÀUvkv AtYmdnän Hm^v C´y¡mWv. cPnÌÀ sNbvX IoS\min\nIfn th¸v A[njvTnX IoS\min\nIÄ, Nne ssPh IoS\min\nIÄ F¶nhbpÄs¸Sp¶ 40 Hmfw IoS\min\nIfpsS FwBÀF \nÝbn¡m³ \nba]camb _m[yXbnÃ. Ahtijn¡p¶ IoS\min\nIfn 59 F®¯nsâ FwBÀF C\nbpw \nÝbn¨n«nÃ. FwBÀF \nÝbn¨ hnfIfpsS Imcy¯nemIs« tImUIvkvt]mepÅ A´mcmjv{S am\ZÞ§Ä ]men¨n«panÃ. A]qÀWhpw Aimkv{XobhpamWv FwBÀF \nÝbn¨ncn¡p¶Xv. Nne IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯n cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶ FÃm hnfIfnepw FwBÀF ]T\w \S¯nbn«nÃ. AtXkabw Nne IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯n cPnÌÀ sN¿m¯ hnfIÄ¡pthWvSn ^pUv tk^vän B³Uv Ìm³tUÀUv AtYmdnän FwBÀF ]T\w \S¯pIbpw sNbvXncn¡p¶p.

IoS\min\n I¼\nIÄ GsXÃmw hnfIÄ¡p thWvSnbmtWm Hcp {]tXyI IoS\min\n tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUn cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶Xv B hnfIfn am{Xw B {]tXyI IoS\min\n in]mÀi sN¿m\mWv \nba]camb AhImiw. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUpw cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nänbpw Nne {]tXyI hnfIfnse {]tXyI IoS§fpsS \nb{´W¯n\pthWvSn am{XamWv IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ A\phZn¡p¶Xv. F¶m tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ \nÀt±i¯n \n¶pw hyXykvX ambn aäp hnfIfnse IoS\nb{´W¯n\p thWvSpbpw AtX IoS\min\n Xs¶ ImÀjnI kÀÆIemimeIfpw kvss] kkv t_mÀUv, KthjW tI{µ§Ä, tlmÀ«nIĨÀ anj³ XpS§nb GP³knIfpw in]mÀi sN¿p¶p.

]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIfpsS cq]¯nemWv Cu Øm]\§Ä hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ \ÂIp¶Xv. ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsS in]mÀiIÄ tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀ Unsâ \nÀt±i§fpambn kacks¸Sm¯Xv ]et¸mgpw {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡p¶p. IoS\min\nIfpsS Ahjn]vX hnjmwis¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]T\§Ä C¯cw hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ Akm[yam¡p¶p. `£ykpc£bnepw CXv {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡pw. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ AtX in]mÀiIÄ ]n´pScm\mWv _m[yXsb¦nepw {]mtZinIamb {]tXyIXIÄ IW¡nseSp¯mWv C¯cw hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ \ÂIp¶sX¶mWv AhImihmZw. F¶m ]et¸mgpw aXnbmb kpc£m]T\§Ä \S¯msXbmWv Cu in]mÀiIsf¶XmWv hmkvXhw. s\Ãv, amhv, IpcpapfIv, Gew, tXbne, Icn¼v XpS§nb 11 hnfIÄ ]cntim[n¨t¸mÄ ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpw hnhn[ t_mÀUpIfpw KthjW Øm]\§fpw \ÂIp¶ in]mÀiIfpw IoS\min\nIfpsS cPnkvt{Sj\pambn an¡t¸mgpw s]mcp¯s¸Sp¶nsömWv knFkvC bpsS ]T\w IsWvS¯nbXv. cPnkvt{Sj³ CÃm¯ Hcp IoS\min\nbpsS AhinjvSw \nba]cambn Hcp hnfbn IsWvS¯m³ ]mSnÃm¯XmWv. A§s\ IsWvS¯nbm AXv IeÀ¸mbn ]cnKWn¡s¸Spw.

Hcp hnfbn IoS\min\n Xfn¨pIgnªm AXv hnLSn¨v \nÀhocyamIp¶Xn\pÅ kabw Ignªp am{Xsa hnfshSp¯v D]tbmKn¡phm³ ]mSpÅp. Ahjn]vX hnjhocyw kw_Ôn¨ ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv Hmtcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm IoS\min\nbpsSbpw {]tbmK¯n\pw hnfshSp¸n\panSbnepÅ CSthf \nÝbn¡p¶Xv. Im¯ncn¸p Imew (Witing period) F¶dnbs¸Sp¶ Cu CSthfbv¡ptijw hnfshSp¯m am{Xsa Dev]¶w kpc£nXambncn¡pIbpÅq. A]ISIcaÃm¯ Afhn am{Xta IoS\min\n hnfshSp¯ Dev]¶¯n AS§nbn«pÅpsh¶v Dd¸m¡m\mWv Im¯ncn¸pImew \nÝbn¡p¶Xv. hnfshSp¯ tijw t\cn«p `£n¡p¶ ]gw ]¨¡dn hnfIfn Im¯ncn¸p Imew IqSpX {]m[m\yaÀln¡p¶p. IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ e`n¡p¶Xn\v Im¯ncn¸pIme¯nsâ hniZhnhc§fpw tI{µIoS\min\n t_mÀUn\pw cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän¡pw \ÂInbncn¡Ww. F¶m an¡ IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯nepw Im¯ncn¸pIme¯nsâ Imcy¯n hyàXtbm ]qÀWXtbm CÃ. Nne IoS\min\nIÄ¡v Im¯ncn¸pImew in]mÀi sNbvXnt«bnÃ. D]t`màmhnsâ BtcmKys¯ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw AXy´w A]ISIcamb ØnXnbmWnXv.

ASnØm\Xe¯n IÀjIcpsS CSbnte¡p hcpt¼mÄ ØnXn CXnepw Zb\obamWv. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ \nÀt±i§Ä¡\pkcn¨Ã IÀjIÀ ]et¸mgpw IoS\min\nIÄ hm§p¶Xv. IoS\min\n hnev]\¡mcmWv an¡t¸mgpw IÀjIcpsS amÀKZÀin. Nnet¸msgÃmw kz´w [mcWb\pkcn¨pw IÀjI³ IoS\min\n hm§p¶p. At©m Btdm hÀjw IqSpt¼mgmWv ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ ]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIÄ ]pXp¡p¶Xv. CXn\Iw ]e ]pXnb IoS\min\nIfpw hn]Wnbnend¡nbncn¡pw. CXv ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ ]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIfn DÄs¸Sp¯n ]pXp¡pt¼mtg¡pw Cu IoS\min\nIÄ ]gbXmbn¡gnªncn¡pw. ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsS in]mÀiIfn DÄs¸Sp¯¶Xn\pÅ Cu ImeXmakw ImcWw IoS\min\n hnev]\¡mÀ kz´w \nebn ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ IÀjIÀ¡v in]mÀi sN¿p¶p. Cu in]mÀiIÄ¡v tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâtbm ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsStbm in]mÀiIfpambn s]mcp¯sam¶papWvSmbncn¡pIbnÃ. tI{µ \nb{´W \nba¯nse ]gpXpIÄ apXem¡n \ntcm[n¨ IoS\min\nIfpw cPnkvt{Sj\nÃm¯ hymP IoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmK¯n\v \n_Ô\IÄ GÀs¸Sp¯nbn«pÅ IoS\min\nIfpsaÃmw hn]Wnbn kpe`ambn hnägn¡s¸Sp¶p. knFkvC \S¯nb kÀshbn ]s¦Sp¯ cWvSp IÀjIÀ \ntcm[n¡s¸« F³tUmkÄ^m³ Ct¸mgpw D]tbmKn¨phcp¶Xmbn k½Xn¨p.

2003  knFkvC \S¯nb ]T\§fn s]]vkn, sIms¡mtImf {_m³UpIfn A\phZ\obamb ]cn[nbnepw ]Xn·S§v A[nIw Afhn IoS\min\nIÄ AS§nbncn¡p¶Xmbn IsWvS¯nbncp¶p. _lpcmjv{S I¼\nIfpsS hnhn[ {_m³Uv Ip¸nshůnepw amcIamb IoS\min\nIÄ A\phZ\obamb Afhnepw IqSpXemsW¶pw ]T\§fn sXfnªncp¶p. CtX¯pSÀ¶v ioXf]m\ob§fnse IoS\min\nIfpsS AhinjvSs¯bpw kpc£m am\ZÞ§sfbpw Ipdn¨v ]Tn¡m³ Hcp kwbpà ]mÀesaâdn I½nän¡v (sP]nkn) ]mÀesaâv cq]w \ÂIn. I½nän 2005  kaÀ¸n¨ dnt¸mÀ«n IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmKw kw_Ôn¨v \nch[n in]mÀiIÄ DÄs¡mÅn¨ncp¶p. F¶m sP]nkn dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n¨v F«phÀjw Ignªn«pw Cu dnt¸mÀ«n ASnb´c{]m[m\yt¯msS kaÀ¸n¨ \nÀt±i§fn `qcn`mKhpw \S¸m¡s¸SmsX Ahtijn¸n¡pIbmWv. Hmtcm IoS\min\n¡pw Hmtcm hnfbnepapÅ ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ (FwBÀFÂ) \nÝbn¡msX cPnkvt{Sj³ \nÂIcpsX¶mbncp¶p Hcp {][m\ in]mÀi. CXn\pthWvSn IoS\min\n \nba¯n t`ZKXn sImWvSphcpsa¶v tI{µ Irjn a{´mebw Adnbn¨ncp¶psh¦nepw CXphscbpw \S]Snsbm¶psaSp¯n«nÃ. cPnÌÀ sNbvX IoS\min\nIsf¡pdn¨v I¼\nIÄ {]kn²oIcn¡p¶ eLpteJIfn Im¯ncn¸pImew kw_Ôn¨ hniZmwi§Ä tNÀ¯ncn¡Wsa¶ sP]nkn in]mÀibpw C\nbpw \S¸m¡nbn«nÃ. \ntcm[n¡s¸« IoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmKw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯nb IoS\min\nIfpw hym]Iambn Zpcp]tbmKw sN¿p¶nsöv Dd¸m¡Wsa¶Xmbncp¶p asämcp in]mÀi. CXnepw \S]Snsbm¶pambn«nÃ. C¯cw IoS\min\nIÄ hn¡p¶hÀs¡Xntc \S]Sn kzoIcn¡m³ \nbaw t`ZKXn sN¿Wsa¶ in]mÀi \S¸m¡p¶ Imcy¯nepw ]ptcmKXnsbm¶panÃ.

tIcf¯n 2011 tabn ssPhImÀjnI \bw \S¸m¡p¶Xnsâ `mKambn Nph¸p te_enepw aª te_enepapÅ hnjhocyw IqSnb GXm\pw IoS\min\nIfpw IpanÄ\min\nIfpw If\min\nIfpw \ntcm[n¨ncp¶p. \ntcm[n¨ IoS\min\nIÄ¡p ]Icambn GXm\pw _Z IoS\min\nIfpw IpanÄ\min\nIfpw If\min\nIfpw ImÀjnI kÀhIemimebpsS in]mÀibpsS ASnØm\¯n kwØm\ kÀ¡mÀ AwKoIcn¨psImWvSv D¯chnd¡n. Hcp hÀjImemh[nbnte¡mbncp¶p Cu in]mÀi. Hcp hÀj¯n\Iw Cu _Z IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£sb¡pdn¨v ]T\w \S¯n dnt¸mÀ«v \ÂIWsa¶mbncp¶p \nÀt±iw. F¶m Cu _Z IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXXzs¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]T\w cWvSphÀjambn«pw ]qÀ¯nbmbn«nÃ. _Z IoS\min\nIfmbn in]mÀisNbvXn«pÅ CanUmt¢m{]nUv, t¢mÀss^dnt^mkv XpS§nb IoS\min\nIÄ Nne hntZi cmPy§fn \ntcm[n¡s¸SpItbm D]tbmKw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯s¸SpItbm sNbvXn«pÅ IoS\min\nIfmWv. "t\Àhv GPâv' F¶ t]cnednbs¸Sp¶ \ntbm\nt\m«ntembnUv hn`mK¯nse CanUm t¢m{]nUv F¶ IoS\min\n tX\o¨ tImfWnIfpsS hn\mi¯n\p ImcWamIpsa¶Xn\m ASp¯ Ime¯v bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\nse ]e cmPy§fnepw \ntcm[n¨n«pWvSv.

Adp]XpIfn AÛpXacp¶pIfmbn hntijn¸n¡s¸«v hn]Wnbnse¯nb IoS\min\nIÄ acW¯nsâ HäaqenIfmbn amdnbn«pw cmPys¯ IoS\min\n \nba¯n Imem\pkrXamb t`ZKXn hcp¯phm³ A[nIrXÀ C\nbpw X¿mdmbn«nÃ. ]cnØnXn, Pemib§Ä, PohPme§Ä, a®v F¶nhsb A\phZ\obamb ]cn[n¡pw ]Xn·S§papIfn IoS\min\nIÄ aen\oIcn¨n«pw IoS\min\n \nb{´W \nba§Ä kab_ÔnXambn ]cnjvIcn¡m³ X¿mdmIm¯Xv IoS\min\n tem_nbpsS k½À±¯n\p hg§p¶Xp sImWvStà F¶p kwibnt¡WvSncn¡p¶p.

IqSpX hnhc§Ä¡v: 9387100119.

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]et¸mgpw sNmdnbpw tN\ sb \½psS ImbvIdn ]¨¡dnIfn \n¶v \mw sNmdnªv amän \nÀ¯p¶p. F¶m \madnbp¶nà A¶P¯nsâ Iehfbmb Cu a®nse \n[nbn ]mÝmXytcsd B{ibn¡p¶ Dcpf¡ng§nt\...
tXm«hnfsb N«nbnem¡n Aehn¡
Irjnt¯m«§fnepw ho«papäs¯ ac¯nepw am{XamWv \mw IpcpapfIpsNSn hfcp¶Xp IWvSn«pÅXv. F¶m hb\mSv I¸ä KmÔn\KÀ tdmUv am«n AehnbpsS ho«nse¯nbm IpcpapfIns\¡pdn¨pÅ [mc...
hcp¶p h\man sN½o\p \Ã Imew
aebmfnIfpsS DuWp taibn te¡v hntZi¯p\n¶pw Hcp C\w sN½o³ IqSn F¯nbncn¡p¶p. im´kap{Z¯nsâ Ing¡³ `mK§fn ImWs¸Sp¶ h\man sN½o\pIfmWv tIcf¯nse ]mS§fnepw Ipf§fnepw \o...
ap¯paWnIÄ NqSn DZym\kpµcn
sNdnb ap¯paWnIÄ ]nSn¸n¨ \of³ XWvSpIÄ ImgvN¡v Hcp ap¯pame t]msetbm s\¢kv t]msetbm tXm¶pw. BZyw ImWp¶hÀ ap¯paWnIfm AewIrXbmb Cu kkykpµcnsb ImWpt¼mÄ AÛpXw Iqdpw. ...
PmXn : ssI s]mÅmXn¡m³ s]mSnss¡Ifpambn IÀjIÀ
PmXnhne CSnªXnsâ ]ncnapdp¡¯nemWv ]e IÀjIcpw. F¶m {]XnkÔnItfmSv ]Ssh«m³ ioen¨ IÀjIcn NneÀ CXn\v Nne adpacp¶pIÄ IsWvS¯n. DXv]mZ\w hÀ[n¸n¨m \neh...
`£ykpc£bv¡mbn \Kc§fnepw ]¨¡dn Irjn
\½psS kwØm\w asämcp lcnX hn¹h¯nsâ ]mXbnemWv. kpc£nX `£Wsa¶ Bibw Gähpa[nIw \S¸nem¡p¶Xv ]¨¡dn taJebnemWv. Xcnip \ne§fnepw, kvIqfpIfnepw, ho«papä¯pw ^vfmäpIfn t]m...
_menbpsS kz´w kem¡v ]gw
\½psS \m«n A]qÀhambn ImWm³ Ignbp¶ Hcp Ct´mt\jy³ sNSnbmWv kem¡v. Pmh, kpam{X, _menbmWv P·tZiw. ]\hr£¯nÂs¸« sNSnbmWv. sNSnbpsS Nph«nemWv ]gw DWvSmIp¶Xv. C¶v temI...
Pd_d: t]mfnluknepw
hmWnPymSnØm\¯nepÅ ]pjv]Irjnbn ap³\ncbn \n¡p¶Xv Xangv\mSpw IÀWmSIbpamWv. ChnsS DXv]mZn¸n¡p¶ ]pjv]§fn `qcn`mKhpw tIcf¯nse ]pjv]amÀ¡äpIfnemWv F¯p¶Xv. hnhn[Xc¯n...
skdns^Uv Xncn¨phcp¶p; tIcfw ]«p]pXbv¡ptam?
tIcf¯n ]«p\qÂ]pgphfÀ¯epw ]«p\q \nÀamWhpw \S¯nbncp¶ skdns^Uv sslt¡mSXn hn[nbpsS ASnØm\¯n ]p\cpÖohn¸n¡m³ kwØm\ kÀ¡mÀ HmÀUÀ Cd¡nbncn¡pIbmWv. 2010þ11 ImeL«¯n {]...
lcnXkzÀW¯nsâ Xnf¡apÅ \mSv
\qämWvSpIÄ ]g¡apÅ XncqÀ shänes]cpa tXSnbmbncp¶p bm{X. Xncqcnsâ km¼¯nI, kmaqlnI]ptcmKXnbpw shänehn]Wnbpw Cg]ncnªpInS¡p¶p. AXnÀ¯nIÄ XmWvSnb XncqÀ shänebpsS ta³a \...
ss{St¡mUÀa ho«n \nÀan¡mw
ssPh]¨¡dnIrjn¡mbn PohmWpIpanÄ \min\nbmb ss{St¡mUÀa kz´ambn DXv]mZn¸n¨v hnXcWw sN¿phm³ XbmdmIpIbmWv ]me¡mSv PnÃbnse B\¡c ]©mb¯nse HcpIq«w IÀjIÀ. Bß ]²XnbpsS Iogn...
ssPh ]¨¡dn Irjnbnse IpªncmambWw
]eXc¯nepÅ ]¨¡dnIÄ ssPhnI coXnbn Irjn sNbvXp hnPbw sIm¿p¶ Ipªncmta«sâ IYbmWnXv. ImkÀtKmUv PnÃbn DZpa ]©mb¯nse taÂ_mcbn {]mbw XfÀ¯m¯ Bßhnizhpambn _n. Ipªncma³....
hn¯ptX§ kw`cn¡m³ kabambn....
hn¯pKpWw ]¯pKpWw F¶p ]dbp¶Xpw, apfbnte Adnbmw hnf F¶p ]dbp¶Xpw sX§ns\ kw_Ôn¨v A¨«mWv. ImcWw Hcp a\pjymbpkv apgph³ hnfhp XtcWvS sX§nsâ hn¯pw ssXIfpw sXcsªSp¡pt¼m...
hben³ t]mse CeIÄ, XqshŸq¡Ä
tIcf¯nse KrtlmZym\§fn CubSp¯Ime¯v Gsd {]Nmcw t\Snb Hcp ]qs¨SnbpWvSv, {]tXyIn¨v ]pXpXmbn hoSphbv¡p¶hcmWv Cu ]qs¨SnbpsS Bcm[IÀ. an¡hmdpw ]pXnb hoSnsâ aXnent\mSp ...
aÕy, tImgn AhinjvS§Ä tImgn¯oäbm¡mw
aÕyw `qcn]£w tIcfobcpsSbpw Blmc¯nse Hcp {][m\ LSIamWv. C´ybpsS Btfmlcn aÕy D]tbmKw A©p Intem BsW¶ncns¡ tIcf¯n CXv 18.5 IntembmWv. tIcf¯n AwKoImcapÅ 2703 aÕy h...
sSdknse 1000 kvIzbÀ ^oän ]qhnSp¶Xv 2000 HmÀ¡nUpIÄ
GXp kab¯pw Irjn XpS§mw, hÀW§fpsS ambnI temI¯v a\kns\ DÃkn¡m³ hnSmw. sNehmIp¶Xn¡qSpX hcpam\apWvSm¡mw. at®m, {]tXyIn¨v Øetam BhiyanÃ. C{Xsbms¡t¸mtc Hcp Irjn XpS...
hnÚm\ hym]\ ]²XnbneqsS hnPbhpambn eoUv IÀjIÀ
tIcf IrjnhIp¸v 1980 ImeL«¯n \S¸nem¡nb T & V t{]m{Kmw Irjn hnÚm\ hym]\¯n\v ]pXnb apJw \ÂIpIbpWvSmbn. ImÀjnI taJebn A\pZn\w c...
hn]Wn IsWvS¯m³ 11 X{´§Ä
R§Ä ssPhIrjncoXn D]tbmKn¨v IrjnsNbvXp. At¸mgmWv IoS§fpsS B{IaWw. Iptd hnfhp \in¨p. _m¡nbpÅh hn]Wnbnse¯n¨t¸mgmIs«, ]n¨¡mtcmSp s]cpamdp¶Xpt]mse IS¡mcsâ s]cpamäw. ...
sS³j³amän kpJ\n{Z \ÂIp¶ Ae¦mcs¨SnIÄ
Dd¡¡pdhv, sS³j³, kvs{Skv CsXÃmw ]ckv]cw _Ôs¸«p InS¡p¶ {]iv\§fmWv. Gsd kaÀ±w A\p`hn¡p¶ bphm¡Ä¡mWv IqSpXembpw C¯cw {]iv\§Ä t\cnSp¶Xv. kvs{Skpw sS³j\pw IqSp¶Xv Dd¡...
PmXn IcIbdpw, IcpXÂ {][m\w
hnebnSnhp aqew {]XnkÔnbnemb PmXn¡ hn]Wn IcIbä kqN\IÄ \ÂIn XpS§n. Ignª 10 Znhk¯n\pÅn PmXn¡hne Intembv¡v 50 cq] hÀ[n¨p. Cu {]hWX XpScpsa¶pw amÀ¨vþ G{]n hnfshSp¸...
AWs¡«pIsf aÕykar²am¡mw
arKP\yamwky¯n\mbn 49 iXam\w Gjy¡mcpw B{ibn¡p¶Xv aÕys¯bmWv. temI¯v arKP\y amwkyw \ÂIp¶Xn Bdmw Øm\amWv aÕy¯n\pÅXvv. temI¯v Gähpw IqSpX aÕyw Xt±inbambn DXv]mZn¸n...
B¬\mbv¡sf hfÀ¯mw, DintcmsS
P\{]nbcmb ap´nb C\§fnÂs¸« ]mc¼cyKpWapÅ B¬\mbv¡sf AYhm ÌUv tUmKpIsf sI¶epIfn ]cn]men¨v Ahsb CWtNÀ¡m³ D]tbmKn¡p¶ tkh\w sXmgnembn kzoIcn¨ncn¡p¶ \nch[n \mb t{]anIf...
icocw kpKÔ]qcnXam¡pw sI¸Â ]gw
Ct´mt\jybnse PmhbpsS am{Xw kz´amWv sI¸Â (Burahol). km[mcW FÃm ]g§fpw BlmcamWv. F¶m Cu ]gw acp¶mbpw icoc¯n\p kpKÔw \evIphm\pamb...
kntbm¬apWvSnþtPmÀPnsâ kz´w IpcpapfIn\w
{ZpXhm«s¯ {]Xntcm[n¡pw, enäÀ shbväv IqSpw, hen¸apÅ Ch\v \à Idp¸p \ndamWv, Xncn\ofhpw tNmebv¡pÅn hnfbm\pÅ Ignhpw Gsd. thKw sImgns¨Sp¡msa¶ {]tXyIXbpw. CXv GsX¦ne...
]qt´m«§Ä¡v AgImbv tKmÄUv ^njv sNSn
Hmd©p IeÀ¶ Nph¸p \nd¯n Ipgept]mse \oWvS ]q¡Ä, IpXn¨pNmSp¶ ao\pItfmSv kmZriyapÅ ]q¡Ä hnS¯p¶ ]qs¨Sn¡v tKmÄUv ^njv sNSn F¶v klrZbÀ t]cn«Xn AZv`pXanÃ. ZoÀLmbpkpÅ ...
hnIvSdn h¬ \qX\ IrjnapdIÄ
hnIvSdn h¬ aÄ_dn s¨Sn bneqsS _meIr jvW³ t\SnbXv ]«n s]mXnª Fþ¹kv. ]«p \qÂ]pgphfÀ¯Â Bcw`n¨v \mep_m¨v Ignbpt¼mÄ icm icn hnfshSp¸v iXam\w 116. kwØm\s¯ icmicn hnfs...
Idnth¸ne Blmchpw.... Huj[hpw
Idnth¸ne X³ kpKÔtam KpWtam GXmWv sshinãyw F¶ tNZy¯n\v D¯cambn Cu BbpÀthZivtfmIw hmbn¨v BhÀ¯n¨v a\\w sN¿q.
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