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P\§sf sImÃp¶ IoS\min\n \nba§Ä

tUm. tPmkv tPmk^v

{]^kÀ B³Uv slUv, hnÚm\hym]\hn`mKw, ImÀjnI tImfPv, ]S¶¡mSv


F³tUmkÄ^m³ DÄs¸sS XeapdIsf ZpcnX¯nemgv¯p¶ IoS\min\n Zpc´§Ä XpSÀ¡Ybmbn amdpt¼mgpw cmPys¯ IoS\min\n\nb{´W \nba§Ä C¶pw Ip¯gnªXmbn XpScp¶psh¶v ]T\ dnt¸mÀ«v. Hmtcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm IoS\min\nbpsSbpw A\phZ\obamb AhinjvS hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¡msX IoS\min\nIÄ¡v Ct¸mgpw cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xmbn \yqUÂlnbnse skâÀ t^mÀ kb³kv B³Uv F³htbm¬saâv (knFkvC) ASp¯Ime¯v ]pd¯nd¡nb Hcp dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ hmWnPy]cambn ]pd¯nd¡m³ A\paXn \ÂIn¡gnªXn\p tijhpw aXnbmb kpc£m]T\§Ä \S¯mdnÃ. IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmKs¯¡pdn¨v Kh¬saâv hnÚm\hym]\ GP³knIÄ IÀjIÀ¡nSbn \S¯p¶ t_m[h¡cW ]cn]mSnIÄ XoÀ¯pw A]cym]vXamWv. GsXÃmw hnfIfn {]tbmKn¡p¶Xn\mtWm Hcp IoS\min\n¡v tI{µ C³skIvSnsskkv t_mÀUv cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂInbncn¡p¶Xv B hnfIfneÃmsX aäp hnfIfnepw AtX IoS\min\n Xfn¡p¶Xn\v ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpw hnhn[ t_mÀUpIfpw in]mÀi \ÂIp¶Xmbpw knFkvC bpsS ]T\ dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. {]mtZinI Xe¯n \S¯p¶ ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv cPnkvt{Sj\nÃm¯ hnfIfnepw IoS\min\nIÄ in]mÀi sN¿p¶sX¶v ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ AhImis¸Sp¶psWvS¦nepw ]et¸mgpw C¯cw ]T\§Ä \S¡mdnÃ. IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmK¯n\p thWvSn F«phÀjw ap¼v tPmbnâv ]mÀesaâdn I½än (sP]nkn) kaÀ¸n¨ \nÀt±i§Ä Ct¸mgpw \S¸m¡nbn«nCsöpw knFkv dnt¸mÀ«v shfns¸Sp¯p¶p.

kzX{´ C´ybn dnt¸mÀ«v sN¿s¸« BZys¯ h³IoS\min\n Zpc´w kw`hn¨Xv tIcf¯nembncp¶p. 1958  102 t]cpsS Poh³ A]lcn¨ Cu IoS\min\n Zpc´¯n\p ImcWw Atacn¡bn \n¶pw I¸en Cd¡paXnsNbvX `£yhkvXp¡fn CussX³ ]mc¯tbm¬ F¶ IoS\min\n IeÀ¶Xmbncp¶p. F¶m cmPy¯v ka{Kamb Hcp IoS\min\n \nba¯n\v cq]w \ÂIm³ hoWvSpw 10 hÀjw IqSn thWvSnh¶p. cWvSp I½oj\pIfpsS {]hÀ¯\¯n\p tijamWv 1968  cmPys¯ IoS\min\n \nba¯n\v cq]w \ÂInbXv. Cu \nba§Ä \S¸m¡p¶Xn\pÅ A\p_Ô N«§Ä 1971  am{XamWv \nehn h¶Xv. ^coZm_mZv BØm\ambn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUmWv \nbaw \S¸m¡m\pÅ GP³kn. t_mÀUnsâ IognepÅ cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ A\phZn¡p¶p. Hcp ]pXnb IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xn\p ap¼v AXnsâ ]mcnØnXnI {]XymLmX§Ä, {]tXyI IoS¯ns\XnscbpÅ Imcy£aamb {]hÀ¯\w, Ahjn]vX hnjmwiw XpS§nbhsb¡pdn¨v hniZamb ]T\§Ä \S¯n hnhc§Ä tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän¡v kaÀ¸n¨ncn¡Ww. iàamb kpc£m]co£W§Ä \S¯Wsa¶v ISemkn \nbaapsWvS¦nepw ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIm\pÅ kpc£m]co£W§Ä ]et¸mgpw {]lk\ambn amdp¶p. I¼\nIÄ \ÂIp¶ ]co£Whnhc§Ä \njv]£amb hniIe\¯n\p hnt[bam¡msX AtX]Sn apJhnebvs¡Sp¯psImWvSmWv an¡t¸mgpw cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xv. IoS\min\n hn]Wnbnend¡p¶Xn\p ap¼p hsc am{Xsa kpc£m ]T\§Ä \S¯mdpÅp. Irjn¡mcnse¯p¶ IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£m]T\w \S¯p¶Xv tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ D¯chmZnXztabÃ.

]©m_nse ImÀjnI taJebmb `«n³Ubn \n¶pw cmPØm\nse _n¡m\dnte¡pÅ s{Sbn³ \¼À 339 "Im³kÀ s{Sbn³' F¶mWv Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. Cu s{Sbn³ `«n³Ubn \n¶pw Znhtk\ 70 Im³kÀ tcmKnIsf hoXw _n¡m\dnse doPW Im³kÀ skâdnte¡p sImWvSpt]mIp¶p. 1960 Ifnepw 70Ifnepw AanXamb IoS\min\n {]tbmK¯neqsS lcnXhn¹hw Act§dnb `«n³Ubnse {Kma§fn \n¶pÅhcmWv Cu Im³kÀ tcmKnIÄ. ]©m_nse `«n³Ubpw tIcf¯nse ImkÀtKmUpw t]mse cmPys¯ Nne taJeIfn IoS\min\nIfpsS A\nb{´nX D]tbmKw Zpc´w hnXbv¡pt¼mÄ AXpXSbp¶Xn\v XnI¨pw A]cym]vXamWv \nehnepÅ IoS\min\n \nb{´W \nba§Ä. Hcn¡Â Irjn¡mcnse¯n¡gnªm GXp IoS\min\nbpw A\nb{´nXambn hn¡m\pw GXp hnfbnepw Aimkv{Xobambn D]tbmKn¡m\papÅ A]ISIcamb kmlNcyw Ct¸mgpw \ne\n¡p¶p. IoS\min\n tem_nbpsS iàamb k½À±w ImcWw \nehnepÅ \nbaw ]gpXS¨p \S¸m¡mt\m Imem\pkrXambn ]cnjvIcn¡mt\m km[n¡p¶nÃ.

C´ybn Ct¸mÄ cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶ 241 IoS\min\nIfn 59 F®¯n\v ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¨n«nsöv knFkvC bpsS dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. hnfIfn {]tbmKn¡p¶ IoS\min\nIÄ ]qÀ®ambpw hnLSn¨p t]mImsX hfscs¨dnsbmcp Awiw a®nepw sNSnIfnepw Iptd¡met¯s¡¦nepw Ahtijn¡pw. a\pjyÀ¡pw PohnIÄ¡pw A]ISIcamIm¯ ChbpsS Afhns\ ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n (FwBÀFÂ) AYhm amIvknaw sdknUyq enanäv) F¶p hnfn¡p¶p. \à IrjncoXnIÄ ]n´pSÀ¶Xn\p tijhpw hnfIfn ImWs¸Sp¶ Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ A\phZ\obamb ]cn[nbmWv FwBÀFÂ. ]pXnb IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ e`n¡m³ FwBÀF kw_Ôn¨ hnhc§Ä A\phmcyasænepw 2004 apX CXv \nÀ_Ôam¡psa¶v tI{µ Irjn a{´mebw Dd¸p \ÂInbncp¶p. Cu \n_Ô\ C\nbpw \S¸m¡nbn«nÃ. F¶mÂ, \nch[n hnhmZ§Ä¡ptijhpw FwBÀF kw_Ôn¨ hnhc§Ä CÃmsX Xs¶ cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶ ]Xnhv cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän Ct¸mgpw XpScpIbmWv.

cPnÌÀ sNbvX FÃm IoS\min\nIfpsSbpw A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¡m\pÅ D¯chmZnXzw ^pUv tk^vän B³Uv Ìm³UmÀUvkv AtYmdnän Hm^v C´y¡mWv. cPnÌÀ sNbvX IoS\min\nIfn th¸v A[njvTnX IoS\min\nIÄ, Nne ssPh IoS\min\nIÄ F¶nhbpÄs¸Sp¶ 40 Hmfw IoS\min\nIfpsS FwBÀF \nÝbn¡m³ \nba]camb _m[yXbnÃ. Ahtijn¡p¶ IoS\min\nIfn 59 F®¯nsâ FwBÀF C\nbpw \nÝbn¨n«nÃ. FwBÀF \nÝbn¨ hnfIfpsS Imcy¯nemIs« tImUIvkvt]mepÅ A´mcmjv{S am\ZÞ§Ä ]men¨n«panÃ. A]qÀWhpw Aimkv{XobhpamWv FwBÀF \nÝbn¨ncn¡p¶Xv. Nne IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯n cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶ FÃm hnfIfnepw FwBÀF ]T\w \S¯nbn«nÃ. AtXkabw Nne IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯n cPnÌÀ sN¿m¯ hnfIÄ¡pthWvSn ^pUv tk^vän B³Uv Ìm³tUÀUv AtYmdnän FwBÀF ]T\w \S¯pIbpw sNbvXncn¡p¶p.

IoS\min\n I¼\nIÄ GsXÃmw hnfIÄ¡p thWvSnbmtWm Hcp {]tXyI IoS\min\n tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUn cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶Xv B hnfIfn am{Xw B {]tXyI IoS\min\n in]mÀi sN¿m\mWv \nba]camb AhImiw. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUpw cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nänbpw Nne {]tXyI hnfIfnse {]tXyI IoS§fpsS \nb{´W¯n\pthWvSn am{XamWv IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ A\phZn¡p¶Xv. F¶m tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ \nÀt±i¯n \n¶pw hyXykvX ambn aäp hnfIfnse IoS\nb{´W¯n\p thWvSpbpw AtX IoS\min\n Xs¶ ImÀjnI kÀÆIemimeIfpw kvss] kkv t_mÀUv, KthjW tI{µ§Ä, tlmÀ«nIĨÀ anj³ XpS§nb GP³knIfpw in]mÀi sN¿p¶p.

]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIfpsS cq]¯nemWv Cu Øm]\§Ä hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ \ÂIp¶Xv. ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsS in]mÀiIÄ tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀ Unsâ \nÀt±i§fpambn kacks¸Sm¯Xv ]et¸mgpw {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡p¶p. IoS\min\nIfpsS Ahjn]vX hnjmwis¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]T\§Ä C¯cw hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ Akm[yam¡p¶p. `£ykpc£bnepw CXv {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡pw. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ AtX in]mÀiIÄ ]n´pScm\mWv _m[yXsb¦nepw {]mtZinIamb {]tXyIXIÄ IW¡nseSp¯mWv C¯cw hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ \ÂIp¶sX¶mWv AhImihmZw. F¶m ]et¸mgpw aXnbmb kpc£m]T\§Ä \S¯msXbmWv Cu in]mÀiIsf¶XmWv hmkvXhw. s\Ãv, amhv, IpcpapfIv, Gew, tXbne, Icn¼v XpS§nb 11 hnfIÄ ]cntim[n¨t¸mÄ ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpw hnhn[ t_mÀUpIfpw KthjW Øm]\§fpw \ÂIp¶ in]mÀiIfpw IoS\min\nIfpsS cPnkvt{Sj\pambn an¡t¸mgpw s]mcp¯s¸Sp¶nsömWv knFkvC bpsS ]T\w IsWvS¯nbXv. cPnkvt{Sj³ CÃm¯ Hcp IoS\min\nbpsS AhinjvSw \nba]cambn Hcp hnfbn IsWvS¯m³ ]mSnÃm¯XmWv. A§s\ IsWvS¯nbm AXv IeÀ¸mbn ]cnKWn¡s¸Spw.

Hcp hnfbn IoS\min\n Xfn¨pIgnªm AXv hnLSn¨v \nÀhocyamIp¶Xn\pÅ kabw Ignªp am{Xsa hnfshSp¯v D]tbmKn¡phm³ ]mSpÅp. Ahjn]vX hnjhocyw kw_Ôn¨ ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv Hmtcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm IoS\min\nbpsSbpw {]tbmK¯n\pw hnfshSp¸n\panSbnepÅ CSthf \nÝbn¡p¶Xv. Im¯ncn¸p Imew (Witing period) F¶dnbs¸Sp¶ Cu CSthfbv¡ptijw hnfshSp¯m am{Xsa Dev]¶w kpc£nXambncn¡pIbpÅq. A]ISIcaÃm¯ Afhn am{Xta IoS\min\n hnfshSp¯ Dev]¶¯n AS§nbn«pÅpsh¶v Dd¸m¡m\mWv Im¯ncn¸pImew \nÝbn¡p¶Xv. hnfshSp¯ tijw t\cn«p `£n¡p¶ ]gw ]¨¡dn hnfIfn Im¯ncn¸p Imew IqSpX {]m[m\yaÀln¡p¶p. IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ e`n¡p¶Xn\v Im¯ncn¸pIme¯nsâ hniZhnhc§fpw tI{µIoS\min\n t_mÀUn\pw cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän¡pw \ÂInbncn¡Ww. F¶m an¡ IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯nepw Im¯ncn¸pIme¯nsâ Imcy¯n hyàXtbm ]qÀWXtbm CÃ. Nne IoS\min\nIÄ¡v Im¯ncn¸pImew in]mÀi sNbvXnt«bnÃ. D]t`màmhnsâ BtcmKys¯ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw AXy´w A]ISIcamb ØnXnbmWnXv.

ASnØm\Xe¯n IÀjIcpsS CSbnte¡p hcpt¼mÄ ØnXn CXnepw Zb\obamWv. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ \nÀt±i§Ä¡\pkcn¨Ã IÀjIÀ ]et¸mgpw IoS\min\nIÄ hm§p¶Xv. IoS\min\n hnev]\¡mcmWv an¡t¸mgpw IÀjIcpsS amÀKZÀin. Nnet¸msgÃmw kz´w [mcWb\pkcn¨pw IÀjI³ IoS\min\n hm§p¶p. At©m Btdm hÀjw IqSpt¼mgmWv ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ ]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIÄ ]pXp¡p¶Xv. CXn\Iw ]e ]pXnb IoS\min\nIfpw hn]Wnbnend¡nbncn¡pw. CXv ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ ]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIfn DÄs¸Sp¯n ]pXp¡pt¼mtg¡pw Cu IoS\min\nIÄ ]gbXmbn¡gnªncn¡pw. ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsS in]mÀiIfn DÄs¸Sp¯¶Xn\pÅ Cu ImeXmakw ImcWw IoS\min\n hnev]\¡mÀ kz´w \nebn ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ IÀjIÀ¡v in]mÀi sN¿p¶p. Cu in]mÀiIÄ¡v tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâtbm ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsStbm in]mÀiIfpambn s]mcp¯sam¶papWvSmbncn¡pIbnÃ. tI{µ \nb{´W \nba¯nse ]gpXpIÄ apXem¡n \ntcm[n¨ IoS\min\nIfpw cPnkvt{Sj\nÃm¯ hymP IoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmK¯n\v \n_Ô\IÄ GÀs¸Sp¯nbn«pÅ IoS\min\nIfpsaÃmw hn]Wnbn kpe`ambn hnägn¡s¸Sp¶p. knFkvC \S¯nb kÀshbn ]s¦Sp¯ cWvSp IÀjIÀ \ntcm[n¡s¸« F³tUmkÄ^m³ Ct¸mgpw D]tbmKn¨phcp¶Xmbn k½Xn¨p.

2003  knFkvC \S¯nb ]T\§fn s]]vkn, sIms¡mtImf {_m³UpIfn A\phZ\obamb ]cn[nbnepw ]Xn·S§v A[nIw Afhn IoS\min\nIÄ AS§nbncn¡p¶Xmbn IsWvS¯nbncp¶p. _lpcmjv{S I¼\nIfpsS hnhn[ {_m³Uv Ip¸nshůnepw amcIamb IoS\min\nIÄ A\phZ\obamb Afhnepw IqSpXemsW¶pw ]T\§fn sXfnªncp¶p. CtX¯pSÀ¶v ioXf]m\ob§fnse IoS\min\nIfpsS AhinjvSs¯bpw kpc£m am\ZÞ§sfbpw Ipdn¨v ]Tn¡m³ Hcp kwbpà ]mÀesaâdn I½nän¡v (sP]nkn) ]mÀesaâv cq]w \ÂIn. I½nän 2005  kaÀ¸n¨ dnt¸mÀ«n IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmKw kw_Ôn¨v \nch[n in]mÀiIÄ DÄs¡mÅn¨ncp¶p. F¶m sP]nkn dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n¨v F«phÀjw Ignªn«pw Cu dnt¸mÀ«n ASnb´c{]m[m\yt¯msS kaÀ¸n¨ \nÀt±i§fn `qcn`mKhpw \S¸m¡s¸SmsX Ahtijn¸n¡pIbmWv. Hmtcm IoS\min\n¡pw Hmtcm hnfbnepapÅ ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ (FwBÀFÂ) \nÝbn¡msX cPnkvt{Sj³ \nÂIcpsX¶mbncp¶p Hcp {][m\ in]mÀi. CXn\pthWvSn IoS\min\n \nba¯n t`ZKXn sImWvSphcpsa¶v tI{µ Irjn a{´mebw Adnbn¨ncp¶psh¦nepw CXphscbpw \S]Snsbm¶psaSp¯n«nÃ. cPnÌÀ sNbvX IoS\min\nIsf¡pdn¨v I¼\nIÄ {]kn²oIcn¡p¶ eLpteJIfn Im¯ncn¸pImew kw_Ôn¨ hniZmwi§Ä tNÀ¯ncn¡Wsa¶ sP]nkn in]mÀibpw C\nbpw \S¸m¡nbn«nÃ. \ntcm[n¡s¸« IoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmKw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯nb IoS\min\nIfpw hym]Iambn Zpcp]tbmKw sN¿p¶nsöv Dd¸m¡Wsa¶Xmbncp¶p asämcp in]mÀi. CXnepw \S]Snsbm¶pambn«nÃ. C¯cw IoS\min\nIÄ hn¡p¶hÀs¡Xntc \S]Sn kzoIcn¡m³ \nbaw t`ZKXn sN¿Wsa¶ in]mÀi \S¸m¡p¶ Imcy¯nepw ]ptcmKXnsbm¶panÃ.

tIcf¯n 2011 tabn ssPhImÀjnI \bw \S¸m¡p¶Xnsâ `mKambn Nph¸p te_enepw aª te_enepapÅ hnjhocyw IqSnb GXm\pw IoS\min\nIfpw IpanÄ\min\nIfpw If\min\nIfpw \ntcm[n¨ncp¶p. \ntcm[n¨ IoS\min\nIÄ¡p ]Icambn GXm\pw _Z IoS\min\nIfpw IpanÄ\min\nIfpw If\min\nIfpw ImÀjnI kÀhIemimebpsS in]mÀibpsS ASnØm\¯n kwØm\ kÀ¡mÀ AwKoIcn¨psImWvSv D¯chnd¡n. Hcp hÀjImemh[nbnte¡mbncp¶p Cu in]mÀi. Hcp hÀj¯n\Iw Cu _Z IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£sb¡pdn¨v ]T\w \S¯n dnt¸mÀ«v \ÂIWsa¶mbncp¶p \nÀt±iw. F¶m Cu _Z IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXXzs¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]T\w cWvSphÀjambn«pw ]qÀ¯nbmbn«nÃ. _Z IoS\min\nIfmbn in]mÀisNbvXn«pÅ CanUmt¢m{]nUv, t¢mÀss^dnt^mkv XpS§nb IoS\min\nIÄ Nne hntZi cmPy§fn \ntcm[n¡s¸SpItbm D]tbmKw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯s¸SpItbm sNbvXn«pÅ IoS\min\nIfmWv. "t\Àhv GPâv' F¶ t]cnednbs¸Sp¶ \ntbm\nt\m«ntembnUv hn`mK¯nse CanUm t¢m{]nUv F¶ IoS\min\n tX\o¨ tImfWnIfpsS hn\mi¯n\p ImcWamIpsa¶Xn\m ASp¯ Ime¯v bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\nse ]e cmPy§fnepw \ntcm[n¨n«pWvSv.

Adp]XpIfn AÛpXacp¶pIfmbn hntijn¸n¡s¸«v hn]Wnbnse¯nb IoS\min\nIÄ acW¯nsâ HäaqenIfmbn amdnbn«pw cmPys¯ IoS\min\n \nba¯n Imem\pkrXamb t`ZKXn hcp¯phm³ A[nIrXÀ C\nbpw X¿mdmbn«nÃ. ]cnØnXn, Pemib§Ä, PohPme§Ä, a®v F¶nhsb A\phZ\obamb ]cn[n¡pw ]Xn·S§papIfn IoS\min\nIÄ aen\oIcn¨n«pw IoS\min\n \nb{´W \nba§Ä kab_ÔnXambn ]cnjvIcn¡m³ X¿mdmIm¯Xv IoS\min\n tem_nbpsS k½À±¯n\p hg§p¶Xp sImWvStà F¶p kwibnt¡WvSncn¡p¶p.

IqSpX hnhc§Ä¡v: 9387100119.



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DXv]mZ\¯n\pw hn]W\¯n\pw sdUnbmbn \oc

sX§n \n¶v \ocbpw \ocbpXv]¶§fpw DXv]mZn¸n¡m\pÅ tIcf kÀ¡mcnsâ \nbat`ZKXn s^{_phcn 14 \v hnÚm]\ambn. 112 hÀj§Ä¡p tijw Xncp¯n¡pdn¡s¸«XmWv Cu {]Jym]\w. apJya{´n D½³NmWvSn amÀ¨v cWvSn\v tIm«b¯v \ocbpw \ocbpXv]¶§fpw ]pd¯nd¡pIbpw
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\à ]¨¡dnt¯m«¯n\v Bkq{XWw

hoSpIfn ]¨¡dnt¯m«samcp¡pt¼mÄ imkv{Xobamb ¹m\nwKv DsWvS¦n Hmtcm C©v Øehpw D]bpàam¡p¶Xn\pw IoSþtcmK§Ä Hs«ms¡ Ipdbv¡phm\pw km[n¡pw. tXm«¯n\v `wKn \ÂIp¶tXmsSm¸w anI¨ hnfhpw e`yamIp¶p.
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an\nskäv kmt¦XnIhnZy tN\bnepw Im¨nenepw

[m\yhnfIfpw, ]bdphnfIfpw Ignªm aebmfnbpsS {][m\ `£yhnfbmWv Ing§phÀK§Ä. sshhn[yamÀ¶ a®nepw ImemhØbnepw hfcp¶ Ing§phÀK hnfIÄ, [m\yhnfItf¡mÄ A[nIw hnfhpw DuÀPhpw \ÂIp¶p. Ing§phÀKhnfIÄ¡v hfsc Imcy£aambn
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NocbpsWvS¦n tNmc\¶mIpw, apcn§bptWvS acp¶pthWvS

IrjnbneqsS kt´mjn¡mw. apähpw ]cnkchpw ip²nbpw shSn¸pw \ndbv¡mw. amen\y§Ä Hgnhm¡n hr¯nbm¡mw. F´pthWsat¶m? Nne IrjnIÄ \S¸m¡mw.\à Nocbne¡dn Iq«nbm \½psS tNmc \à ip²ambn \ne\nev¡pw.
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tcmKnIÄ¡pthWvSn ssPh]¨¡dn

NnInÕbvs¡m¸w tcmKnIÄ¡v hnjanÃm¯ `£Ww IqSn \ÂIpIbmWv XriqÀ Aae saUn¡Â tImfPv. Bip]{Xnbnse¯p¶ Bbnc¡W¡n\v tcmKnIÄ¡v kuP\yambn `£Ww \ÂIm³ hn`h§Ä F¯p¶Xv Bip]{Xn hf¸nse ssPh ]¨¡dnt¯m«¯n \n¶v.
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ImÀjnI kÀhIemimebn \n¶v kq¸À amÀ¡änte¡v

hn¯pw hf§fpw IoS\min\nIfpw am{Xw hnÂ]\ \S¯ns¡mWvSncp¶ Imhp§Â GP³knbn \n¶v ImÀjnI kq¸ÀamÀ¡äv F¶ coXnbnte¡pÅ Imhp§Â GP³knbpsS hfÀ¨ A{Knþ _nkn\knsâ thdns«mcp apJamWv Im«n¯cp¶Xv.
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Cd¨nt¡mgnIfpsS Xoä{Iaw

t{_mbneÀ tImgn¡pªp§Ä¡v cWvSp Xc¯nepÅ XoäbmWv \ÂtIWvSXv, t{_mbneÀ ÌmÀ«dpw t{_mbneÀ ^n\njdpw. BZys¯ aq¶mgvN ÌmÀ«À tdj³ sImSp¡Ww. CXn IqSpX amwkyw AS§nbncn¡p¶Xn\m s]s«¶pÅ hfÀ¨bv¡v klmbn¡p¶p.
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tX³Imew: aps¶mcp¡§Ä

tIcf¯n tX\o¨ hfÀ¯en\pÅ A\´amb km[yXIÄ {]tbmP\s¸Sp¯m³ bphm¡fpw kzm{ibkwL§fpw tX\o¨IÀjIcpw Hcpt]mse Xbmdmbns¡mWvSncn¡p¶ kabamWv tX³ Imew. 1990 Ifn `mcX¯nse sX¡³ kwØm\§fmb tIcfw, Xangv\mSv, B{Ô, IÀ®mSI F¶nhnS§fn ....
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hÀ®hnkvabambv Ipªn X¯IÄ

temIsa¼mSpapÅ ]£nt{]anIfpsS lrZb¯n H¶mw Øm\w ssIbS¡p¶ AcpaIfmWv _UvPokv F¶p hnfn¡s¸Sp¶ _UvPdnKdpIÄ (Budgerigars). euhv t_Uvkv F¶ Hma\t¸cn \½psS \m«nepw ChÀ kp]cnNnXcmWv Hmkvt{Senb¡mcmb....
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sNdphůnse ]q¡Ä

\oWvSv hmfpt]mepÅ CeIÄ tNÀ¶v Hcp t_m«nsâþsNdphůnsâþBIrXnbnembncn¡p¶p. Cu sNdphůn Ccn¡p¶Xpt]mse ]q¡sf {]IrXn Xs¶ {IaoIcn¨ncn¡p¶p. C{Xbpambm Cu sNSn¡v t_m«v enÃn F¶ÃmsX F´v t]cp \ÂInbmWp hnfn¡pI?
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aÕyIrjnbneqsS kp{]nb\v t\«§Ä am{Xw

ChnsS \nXyhr¯n¡v hItXSnbpÅ ]c¡w]m¨nen Cu aÕys¯mgnemfn F¯nt¨À¶Xv XnI¨pw BZmbIcamb aÕyIrjnbnte¡v. \oWvSIc ]¶bv¡Â Xpcp¯n _tYÂ`h\¯n kp{]nb\mWv henb apXÂapS¡nÃmsX aÕyIrjnbneqsS t\«§Ä sIm¿p¶Xv.
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ImÀjnI taJebpsS ]p\cp²mcW¯n\v A{Kn _nkn\kv

Irjnsb¸än ]dbpt¼mÄ `qcn]£w t]cptSbpw \mhn \n¶pw ]cm[o\XIfpw ]cmXnIfpw am{XamWv tIÄ¡mdpÅXv. Irjn \ãamWv, Hcp sskUv _nkn\kv am{Xamtb \S¯m³ Ignbq, IÀjI³ F¶pw IS¡mc\mWv C§s\ t]mIp¶p Irjntb¸än s]mXpthbpw Nne IÀjIcptSbpw at\m`mh§Ä.
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kÀPphnsâ tXm«¯n hnfbp¶Xv Atd_y³ I¡ncn

Atd_y³ Zmlia\n Atd_y³ I¡ncn Irjn ]co£n¨p hnPbw t\SpIbmWp amtems¯ kÀPp Iqhbv¡Â. NqSpIme¯p Atd_y³ cmPy§fn Zmlia\nbmbn D]tbmKn¡p¶ I¡ncn hÀK¯nÂs¸« Zmlia\n kÀPp ]co£WmSnØm\¯nemWp Irjn XpS§nbXv.
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sX¦cbn Xoä]pÂIrjn kPohw

a®mÀ¡ms« sX¦cbnepw ]cnkc{]tZi§fmb A¼wIShv, A¼wIp¶v, ]p©t¡mSv, taemapdn `mK§fnepw Xoä]pÂIrjn hym]Iambn. ]ip¡Ä¡pw aäpw Bhiyamb ]pÃv ho«n Xs¶ hfÀ¯pI F¶ £ochnIk\ hIp¸nsâ ]²Xn{]ImcamWv ]pÂIrjn hym]Iam¡nbncn¡p¶Xv.
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ssltd©n Im¸n ]q¯p; IÀjIÀ {]Xo£bnÂ

XmfwsXänb ImemhØbpw ImÀjnI DXv]¶§fpsS hnfhpIpdhpw hne ØncXbnÃmbvabnepw \«w Xncnbp¶ IÀjIÀ¡v {]Xo£bqWÀ¯n ssltd©n Im¸n ]q¯p.
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sFizcyw sImWvSph¶ BSv

IpSpw_{io \S¸m¡nb BSp{Kmaw ]²Xnbn amXrIm]camb hnPbw t\Snb kpPmXsb ]cnNbs¸Sp¶Xv BSp hfÀ¯p¶ hÀ¡pw hfÀ¯m\m {Kln¡p¶ hÀ¡pw D]Imc {]Zambncn¡pw. BSphfÀ¯en kpPmXbv¡p ap³]cnNbsam¶panÃmbncp¶p.
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]¨acp¶pIfpsS Ip¯I AhImiw hn]W\w sN¿s¸SWw

`mcX¯nse Huj[kkytaJebn Gähpw IqSpX KthjW§Ä \S¯nbn«pÅ Hcp hyànbmWv tUm. ]pjv]mwKZ³. sImïv k_v cPnkv{Smdmbncp¶ sI. ]p¸phntâbpw A[ym]nIbmbncp¶ sI. ao\m£nbptSbpw F«pa¡fn Cfbh\mbn 1944  ]pjv]mwKZ³ P\n¨p.
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\ap¡psamcp¡mw ho«nsemcp ]¨¡dnt¯m«w

]pXnb hÀj¯nse ]p¯³ {]Xo£Ifpambn apt¶dns¡mWvSncn¡pIbmWv. ImÀjnIcwKs¯ ]p¯³ ImgvN¸mSpIÄ¡pw \ho\ Bib§Ä¡pw ImtXmÀ¡pIbmWv tIcf¯nse IÀjI kaqlw. F¶m bpF³ `£yImÀjnI kwLS\bpsS {]Jym]\w \mtahtcbpw Nn´n¸n¡p¶ H¶mbn amdnbncn¡pIbmWv.
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]mhen \n¶v 14 tImSn

IrjnIÄ ]eXpsWvS¦nepw ]mhÂIrjnbnembncp¶p \S¯dbpsS kz]v\hnPbw. IpSpw_{io apt¶m«ph¨ kwLIrjn ]²Xnbn AWntNÀ¶v AZv`pXw Im«pIbmbncp¶p ChnS¯pImÀ. s]¬Icp¯nsâ ImÀjnIs¸cpa XoÀ¡p¶ a¦amÀ¡nSbn kwØm\¯pXs¶ H¶maXmWv
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dq«v s{Sbv\À d_ÀssX _ÍnwKpw aäp ]cn]me\ apdIfpw

I¸n hfÀ¯nsbSp¡p¶ Xmbvs¨SnIÄ¡v Hcp amkw {]mbsa¯p¶tXmsS _ÍnwKv {]{Inb Bcw`n¡mhp¶XmWv. Hcp X«neIÄ am{Xw hfÀ¨ F¯nb Cfw Xmbvs¨SnIsf _ÍnwKn\v hnt[bam¡p¶Xns\ bwKv_ÍnwKv F¶mWv hnh£n¡s¸Sp¶Xv.
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AÀ°\....{]mÀ°\

]qt¦mgnIqhpw apt¼ IÀjI\pWcpw. A§v BImi¯n Xnf§n\n¡p¶ s]cpao\mWv Ahsâ IWn. hcp¶ {]`mXw awKfIcamItW F¶h³ B ssNX\ys¯ t\m¡n {]mÀ°n¡p¶p. ]ns¶bmWp {]`mXIÀa§Ä. sh«whogpwapt¼ Ah³ IrjnbnS¯nse¯pw. AXp hbemIs«,
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A\y\m«n N¡bv¡p {]nbtadp¶p

\m«n Ct¸mÄ N¡bpsS hk´Imew. F¶mÂ, Cu taJebnepw A\ykwØm\¡mÀ ]nSnapdp¡nbtXmsS thhn¡m³t]mepw \m«nent¸mÄ N¡ In«m¯ AhØbmWv. N¡bpw N¡¸ghpw N¡¡pcphpw HcpImeL«¯n aebmfnIfpsS hni¸Iänsb¦nepw C¶v A\ykwØm\¡mcmWp Bhiy¡mÀ Gsdbpw.
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sslt{Umt]mWnIvkv: C\n a®nÃmsXbpw Xoä¸p hfÀ¯mw

tIcfw t]mse P\km{µX hfsc IqSnb {]tZi§fn IÀjIsc £oc taJebn \n¶pw ]n´ncn¸n¡p¶ {][m\ LSI§fmWv ]¨¸pÃnsâ e`yX¡pdhv, Xoä¸p hfÀ¯m\pÅ Øe]cnanXn, DbÀ¶ Xoäs¨ehv F¶nh. Idh¸ip¡fpsS BtcmKy¯n\pw ]mepXv]mZ\¯n\pw AXy´mt]£nXamWv ]¨¸pÃv.
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\mS³ I¶pImenIsf ]pXpXeapdbv¡p ]cnNbs¸Sp¯n I]ne s^Ìv

sImbvsXmgnª ]mS§fnepw hnP\amb ]md¸c¸pIfnepw a®n\p hfambn NmWIhpw aq{Xhpw Zm\ambn \ÂIn Ae£yambn taªp\S¶ncp¶ \mS³ I¶pImen¡q«§Ä ]pXnb Xeapdbv¡v HmÀabmbn. CsXÃmw Cu Xeapdbv¡p ]dªptI« IYIÄ am{Xw.
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kbmaokpw A_nÊo\nb\pw

\oe \nd¯nepÅ at\mlcamb I®pItfmSpIqSnb Ch Xmbve³Unse cmPsIm«mc¯n hmWncp¶ ]q¨IfpsS ]n³KmanIfmWv. ]Xns\«mw \qämWvSn Chsb Cw¥WvSnte¡pw Atacn¡bnte¡pw sImWvSph¶p. P\n¡pt¼mÄ XqshÅ \ndapÅ ]q¨¡p«nIÄ hmepXmIpt¼mÄ a§nb
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AZriyamIp¶pthm, Zi]pjv]§Ä

`mcXob kwkvImc¯nsâ Gähpw {]apJamb kw`mh\Ifnsem¶mWv BbpÀthZw. {]IrXnbpsS hcZm\ambn IW¡m¡s¸Sp¶ BbpÀthZw, C¶v \nehnepÅ sshZyimkv{X taJeIfn sh¨v Gähpw ]g¡tadnbXmWv. AYÀhthZ¯nsâ D]thZambn ]cnKWn¡s¸Sp¶ BbpÀthZw.....
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{]IrXn \nb{´n¡p¶ Irjn

C\n, C´y¡v A`nam\n¡m\pw hIbpWvSv. 1762  \½psS ssa\sb audojyknte¡v Ibän Ab¨Xv AhnsS hym]n¨ Nph¶ sh«pInfnsb Xn¶p XoÀ¡m\mWv (sh«pInfn F¶Xv Hcp InfnbÃ. hn«nÂ/]¨¯pų Asæn ae_mdn X¯½pÅv BWv ....
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