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P\§sf sImÃp¶ IoS\min\n \nba§Ä
tUm. tPmkv tPmk^v

{]^kÀ B³Uv slUv, hnÚm\hym]\hn`mKw, ImÀjnI tImfPv, ]S¶¡mSv


F³tUmkÄ^m³ DÄs¸sS XeapdIsf ZpcnX¯nemgv¯p¶ IoS\min\n Zpc´§Ä XpSÀ¡Ybmbn amdpt¼mgpw cmPys¯ IoS\min\n\nb{´W \nba§Ä C¶pw Ip¯gnªXmbn XpScp¶psh¶v ]T\ dnt¸mÀ«v. Hmtcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm IoS\min\nbpsSbpw A\phZ\obamb AhinjvS hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¡msX IoS\min\nIÄ¡v Ct¸mgpw cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xmbn \yqUÂlnbnse skâÀ t^mÀ kb³kv B³Uv F³htbm¬saâv (knFkvC) ASp¯Ime¯v ]pd¯nd¡nb Hcp dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ hmWnPy]cambn ]pd¯nd¡m³ A\paXn \ÂIn¡gnªXn\p tijhpw aXnbmb kpc£m]T\§Ä \S¯mdnÃ. IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmKs¯¡pdn¨v Kh¬saâv hnÚm\hym]\ GP³knIÄ IÀjIÀ¡nSbn \S¯p¶ t_m[h¡cW ]cn]mSnIÄ XoÀ¯pw A]cym]vXamWv. GsXÃmw hnfIfn {]tbmKn¡p¶Xn\mtWm Hcp IoS\min\n¡v tI{µ C³skIvSnsskkv t_mÀUv cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂInbncn¡p¶Xv B hnfIfneÃmsX aäp hnfIfnepw AtX IoS\min\n Xfn¡p¶Xn\v ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpw hnhn[ t_mÀUpIfpw in]mÀi \ÂIp¶Xmbpw knFkvC bpsS ]T\ dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. {]mtZinI Xe¯n \S¯p¶ ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv cPnkvt{Sj\nÃm¯ hnfIfnepw IoS\min\nIÄ in]mÀi sN¿p¶sX¶v ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ AhImis¸Sp¶psWvS¦nepw ]et¸mgpw C¯cw ]T\§Ä \S¡mdnÃ. IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmK¯n\p thWvSn F«phÀjw ap¼v tPmbnâv ]mÀesaâdn I½än (sP]nkn) kaÀ¸n¨ \nÀt±i§Ä Ct¸mgpw \S¸m¡nbn«nCsöpw knFkv dnt¸mÀ«v shfns¸Sp¯p¶p.

kzX{´ C´ybn dnt¸mÀ«v sN¿s¸« BZys¯ h³IoS\min\n Zpc´w kw`hn¨Xv tIcf¯nembncp¶p. 1958  102 t]cpsS Poh³ A]lcn¨ Cu IoS\min\n Zpc´¯n\p ImcWw Atacn¡bn \n¶pw I¸en Cd¡paXnsNbvX `£yhkvXp¡fn CussX³ ]mc¯tbm¬ F¶ IoS\min\n IeÀ¶Xmbncp¶p. F¶m cmPy¯v ka{Kamb Hcp IoS\min\n \nba¯n\v cq]w \ÂIm³ hoWvSpw 10 hÀjw IqSn thWvSnh¶p. cWvSp I½oj\pIfpsS {]hÀ¯\¯n\p tijamWv 1968  cmPys¯ IoS\min\n \nba¯n\v cq]w \ÂInbXv. Cu \nba§Ä \S¸m¡p¶Xn\pÅ A\p_Ô N«§Ä 1971  am{XamWv \nehn h¶Xv. ^coZm_mZv BØm\ambn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUmWv \nbaw \S¸m¡m\pÅ GP³kn. t_mÀUnsâ IognepÅ cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ A\phZn¡p¶p. Hcp ]pXnb IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xn\p ap¼v AXnsâ ]mcnØnXnI {]XymLmX§Ä, {]tXyI IoS¯ns\XnscbpÅ Imcy£aamb {]hÀ¯\w, Ahjn]vX hnjmwiw XpS§nbhsb¡pdn¨v hniZamb ]T\§Ä \S¯n hnhc§Ä tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän¡v kaÀ¸n¨ncn¡Ww. iàamb kpc£m]co£W§Ä \S¯Wsa¶v ISemkn \nbaapsWvS¦nepw ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIm\pÅ kpc£m]co£W§Ä ]et¸mgpw {]lk\ambn amdp¶p. I¼\nIÄ \ÂIp¶ ]co£Whnhc§Ä \njv]£amb hniIe\¯n\p hnt[bam¡msX AtX]Sn apJhnebvs¡Sp¯psImWvSmWv an¡t¸mgpw cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xv. IoS\min\n hn]Wnbnend¡p¶Xn\p ap¼p hsc am{Xsa kpc£m ]T\§Ä \S¯mdpÅp. Irjn¡mcnse¯p¶ IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£m]T\w \S¯p¶Xv tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ D¯chmZnXztabÃ.

]©m_nse ImÀjnI taJebmb `«n³Ubn \n¶pw cmPØm\nse _n¡m\dnte¡pÅ s{Sbn³ \¼À 339 "Im³kÀ s{Sbn³' F¶mWv Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. Cu s{Sbn³ `«n³Ubn \n¶pw Znhtk\ 70 Im³kÀ tcmKnIsf hoXw _n¡m\dnse doPW Im³kÀ skâdnte¡p sImWvSpt]mIp¶p. 1960 Ifnepw 70Ifnepw AanXamb IoS\min\n {]tbmK¯neqsS lcnXhn¹hw Act§dnb `«n³Ubnse {Kma§fn \n¶pÅhcmWv Cu Im³kÀ tcmKnIÄ. ]©m_nse `«n³Ubpw tIcf¯nse ImkÀtKmUpw t]mse cmPys¯ Nne taJeIfn IoS\min\nIfpsS A\nb{´nX D]tbmKw Zpc´w hnXbv¡pt¼mÄ AXpXSbp¶Xn\v XnI¨pw A]cym]vXamWv \nehnepÅ IoS\min\n \nb{´W \nba§Ä. Hcn¡Â Irjn¡mcnse¯n¡gnªm GXp IoS\min\nbpw A\nb{´nXambn hn¡m\pw GXp hnfbnepw Aimkv{Xobambn D]tbmKn¡m\papÅ A]ISIcamb kmlNcyw Ct¸mgpw \ne\n¡p¶p. IoS\min\n tem_nbpsS iàamb k½À±w ImcWw \nehnepÅ \nbaw ]gpXS¨p \S¸m¡mt\m Imem\pkrXambn ]cnjvIcn¡mt\m km[n¡p¶nÃ.

C´ybn Ct¸mÄ cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶ 241 IoS\min\nIfn 59 F®¯n\v ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¨n«nsöv knFkvC bpsS dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. hnfIfn {]tbmKn¡p¶ IoS\min\nIÄ ]qÀ®ambpw hnLSn¨p t]mImsX hfscs¨dnsbmcp Awiw a®nepw sNSnIfnepw Iptd¡met¯s¡¦nepw Ahtijn¡pw. a\pjyÀ¡pw PohnIÄ¡pw A]ISIcamIm¯ ChbpsS Afhns\ ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n (FwBÀFÂ) AYhm amIvknaw sdknUyq enanäv) F¶p hnfn¡p¶p. \à IrjncoXnIÄ ]n´pSÀ¶Xn\p tijhpw hnfIfn ImWs¸Sp¶ Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ A\phZ\obamb ]cn[nbmWv FwBÀFÂ. ]pXnb IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ e`n¡m³ FwBÀF kw_Ôn¨ hnhc§Ä A\phmcyasænepw 2004 apX CXv \nÀ_Ôam¡psa¶v tI{µ Irjn a{´mebw Dd¸p \ÂInbncp¶p. Cu \n_Ô\ C\nbpw \S¸m¡nbn«nÃ. F¶mÂ, \nch[n hnhmZ§Ä¡ptijhpw FwBÀF kw_Ôn¨ hnhc§Ä CÃmsX Xs¶ cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶ ]Xnhv cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän Ct¸mgpw XpScpIbmWv.

cPnÌÀ sNbvX FÃm IoS\min\nIfpsSbpw A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¡m\pÅ D¯chmZnXzw ^pUv tk^vän B³Uv Ìm³UmÀUvkv AtYmdnän Hm^v C´y¡mWv. cPnÌÀ sNbvX IoS\min\nIfn th¸v A[njvTnX IoS\min\nIÄ, Nne ssPh IoS\min\nIÄ F¶nhbpÄs¸Sp¶ 40 Hmfw IoS\min\nIfpsS FwBÀF \nÝbn¡m³ \nba]camb _m[yXbnÃ. Ahtijn¡p¶ IoS\min\nIfn 59 F®¯nsâ FwBÀF C\nbpw \nÝbn¨n«nÃ. FwBÀF \nÝbn¨ hnfIfpsS Imcy¯nemIs« tImUIvkvt]mepÅ A´mcmjv{S am\ZÞ§Ä ]men¨n«panÃ. A]qÀWhpw Aimkv{XobhpamWv FwBÀF \nÝbn¨ncn¡p¶Xv. Nne IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯n cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶ FÃm hnfIfnepw FwBÀF ]T\w \S¯nbn«nÃ. AtXkabw Nne IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯n cPnÌÀ sN¿m¯ hnfIÄ¡pthWvSn ^pUv tk^vän B³Uv Ìm³tUÀUv AtYmdnän FwBÀF ]T\w \S¯pIbpw sNbvXncn¡p¶p.

IoS\min\n I¼\nIÄ GsXÃmw hnfIÄ¡p thWvSnbmtWm Hcp {]tXyI IoS\min\n tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUn cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶Xv B hnfIfn am{Xw B {]tXyI IoS\min\n in]mÀi sN¿m\mWv \nba]camb AhImiw. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUpw cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nänbpw Nne {]tXyI hnfIfnse {]tXyI IoS§fpsS \nb{´W¯n\pthWvSn am{XamWv IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ A\phZn¡p¶Xv. F¶m tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ \nÀt±i¯n \n¶pw hyXykvX ambn aäp hnfIfnse IoS\nb{´W¯n\p thWvSpbpw AtX IoS\min\n Xs¶ ImÀjnI kÀÆIemimeIfpw kvss] kkv t_mÀUv, KthjW tI{µ§Ä, tlmÀ«nIĨÀ anj³ XpS§nb GP³knIfpw in]mÀi sN¿p¶p.

]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIfpsS cq]¯nemWv Cu Øm]\§Ä hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ \ÂIp¶Xv. ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsS in]mÀiIÄ tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀ Unsâ \nÀt±i§fpambn kacks¸Sm¯Xv ]et¸mgpw {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡p¶p. IoS\min\nIfpsS Ahjn]vX hnjmwis¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]T\§Ä C¯cw hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ Akm[yam¡p¶p. `£ykpc£bnepw CXv {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡pw. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ AtX in]mÀiIÄ ]n´pScm\mWv _m[yXsb¦nepw {]mtZinIamb {]tXyIXIÄ IW¡nseSp¯mWv C¯cw hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ \ÂIp¶sX¶mWv AhImihmZw. F¶m ]et¸mgpw aXnbmb kpc£m]T\§Ä \S¯msXbmWv Cu in]mÀiIsf¶XmWv hmkvXhw. s\Ãv, amhv, IpcpapfIv, Gew, tXbne, Icn¼v XpS§nb 11 hnfIÄ ]cntim[n¨t¸mÄ ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpw hnhn[ t_mÀUpIfpw KthjW Øm]\§fpw \ÂIp¶ in]mÀiIfpw IoS\min\nIfpsS cPnkvt{Sj\pambn an¡t¸mgpw s]mcp¯s¸Sp¶nsömWv knFkvC bpsS ]T\w IsWvS¯nbXv. cPnkvt{Sj³ CÃm¯ Hcp IoS\min\nbpsS AhinjvSw \nba]cambn Hcp hnfbn IsWvS¯m³ ]mSnÃm¯XmWv. A§s\ IsWvS¯nbm AXv IeÀ¸mbn ]cnKWn¡s¸Spw.

Hcp hnfbn IoS\min\n Xfn¨pIgnªm AXv hnLSn¨v \nÀhocyamIp¶Xn\pÅ kabw Ignªp am{Xsa hnfshSp¯v D]tbmKn¡phm³ ]mSpÅp. Ahjn]vX hnjhocyw kw_Ôn¨ ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv Hmtcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm IoS\min\nbpsSbpw {]tbmK¯n\pw hnfshSp¸n\panSbnepÅ CSthf \nÝbn¡p¶Xv. Im¯ncn¸p Imew (Witing period) F¶dnbs¸Sp¶ Cu CSthfbv¡ptijw hnfshSp¯m am{Xsa Dev]¶w kpc£nXambncn¡pIbpÅq. A]ISIcaÃm¯ Afhn am{Xta IoS\min\n hnfshSp¯ Dev]¶¯n AS§nbn«pÅpsh¶v Dd¸m¡m\mWv Im¯ncn¸pImew \nÝbn¡p¶Xv. hnfshSp¯ tijw t\cn«p `£n¡p¶ ]gw ]¨¡dn hnfIfn Im¯ncn¸p Imew IqSpX {]m[m\yaÀln¡p¶p. IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ e`n¡p¶Xn\v Im¯ncn¸pIme¯nsâ hniZhnhc§fpw tI{µIoS\min\n t_mÀUn\pw cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän¡pw \ÂInbncn¡Ww. F¶m an¡ IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯nepw Im¯ncn¸pIme¯nsâ Imcy¯n hyàXtbm ]qÀWXtbm CÃ. Nne IoS\min\nIÄ¡v Im¯ncn¸pImew in]mÀi sNbvXnt«bnÃ. D]t`màmhnsâ BtcmKys¯ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw AXy´w A]ISIcamb ØnXnbmWnXv.

ASnØm\Xe¯n IÀjIcpsS CSbnte¡p hcpt¼mÄ ØnXn CXnepw Zb\obamWv. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ \nÀt±i§Ä¡\pkcn¨Ã IÀjIÀ ]et¸mgpw IoS\min\nIÄ hm§p¶Xv. IoS\min\n hnev]\¡mcmWv an¡t¸mgpw IÀjIcpsS amÀKZÀin. Nnet¸msgÃmw kz´w [mcWb\pkcn¨pw IÀjI³ IoS\min\n hm§p¶p. At©m Btdm hÀjw IqSpt¼mgmWv ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ ]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIÄ ]pXp¡p¶Xv. CXn\Iw ]e ]pXnb IoS\min\nIfpw hn]Wnbnend¡nbncn¡pw. CXv ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ ]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIfn DÄs¸Sp¯n ]pXp¡pt¼mtg¡pw Cu IoS\min\nIÄ ]gbXmbn¡gnªncn¡pw. ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsS in]mÀiIfn DÄs¸Sp¯¶Xn\pÅ Cu ImeXmakw ImcWw IoS\min\n hnev]\¡mÀ kz´w \nebn ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ IÀjIÀ¡v in]mÀi sN¿p¶p. Cu in]mÀiIÄ¡v tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâtbm ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsStbm in]mÀiIfpambn s]mcp¯sam¶papWvSmbncn¡pIbnÃ. tI{µ \nb{´W \nba¯nse ]gpXpIÄ apXem¡n \ntcm[n¨ IoS\min\nIfpw cPnkvt{Sj\nÃm¯ hymP IoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmK¯n\v \n_Ô\IÄ GÀs¸Sp¯nbn«pÅ IoS\min\nIfpsaÃmw hn]Wnbn kpe`ambn hnägn¡s¸Sp¶p. knFkvC \S¯nb kÀshbn ]s¦Sp¯ cWvSp IÀjIÀ \ntcm[n¡s¸« F³tUmkÄ^m³ Ct¸mgpw D]tbmKn¨phcp¶Xmbn k½Xn¨p.

2003  knFkvC \S¯nb ]T\§fn s]]vkn, sIms¡mtImf {_m³UpIfn A\phZ\obamb ]cn[nbnepw ]Xn·S§v A[nIw Afhn IoS\min\nIÄ AS§nbncn¡p¶Xmbn IsWvS¯nbncp¶p. _lpcmjv{S I¼\nIfpsS hnhn[ {_m³Uv Ip¸nshůnepw amcIamb IoS\min\nIÄ A\phZ\obamb Afhnepw IqSpXemsW¶pw ]T\§fn sXfnªncp¶p. CtX¯pSÀ¶v ioXf]m\ob§fnse IoS\min\nIfpsS AhinjvSs¯bpw kpc£m am\ZÞ§sfbpw Ipdn¨v ]Tn¡m³ Hcp kwbpà ]mÀesaâdn I½nän¡v (sP]nkn) ]mÀesaâv cq]w \ÂIn. I½nän 2005  kaÀ¸n¨ dnt¸mÀ«n IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmKw kw_Ôn¨v \nch[n in]mÀiIÄ DÄs¡mÅn¨ncp¶p. F¶m sP]nkn dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n¨v F«phÀjw Ignªn«pw Cu dnt¸mÀ«n ASnb´c{]m[m\yt¯msS kaÀ¸n¨ \nÀt±i§fn `qcn`mKhpw \S¸m¡s¸SmsX Ahtijn¸n¡pIbmWv. Hmtcm IoS\min\n¡pw Hmtcm hnfbnepapÅ ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ (FwBÀFÂ) \nÝbn¡msX cPnkvt{Sj³ \nÂIcpsX¶mbncp¶p Hcp {][m\ in]mÀi. CXn\pthWvSn IoS\min\n \nba¯n t`ZKXn sImWvSphcpsa¶v tI{µ Irjn a{´mebw Adnbn¨ncp¶psh¦nepw CXphscbpw \S]Snsbm¶psaSp¯n«nÃ. cPnÌÀ sNbvX IoS\min\nIsf¡pdn¨v I¼\nIÄ {]kn²oIcn¡p¶ eLpteJIfn Im¯ncn¸pImew kw_Ôn¨ hniZmwi§Ä tNÀ¯ncn¡Wsa¶ sP]nkn in]mÀibpw C\nbpw \S¸m¡nbn«nÃ. \ntcm[n¡s¸« IoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmKw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯nb IoS\min\nIfpw hym]Iambn Zpcp]tbmKw sN¿p¶nsöv Dd¸m¡Wsa¶Xmbncp¶p asämcp in]mÀi. CXnepw \S]Snsbm¶pambn«nÃ. C¯cw IoS\min\nIÄ hn¡p¶hÀs¡Xntc \S]Sn kzoIcn¡m³ \nbaw t`ZKXn sN¿Wsa¶ in]mÀi \S¸m¡p¶ Imcy¯nepw ]ptcmKXnsbm¶panÃ.

tIcf¯n 2011 tabn ssPhImÀjnI \bw \S¸m¡p¶Xnsâ `mKambn Nph¸p te_enepw aª te_enepapÅ hnjhocyw IqSnb GXm\pw IoS\min\nIfpw IpanÄ\min\nIfpw If\min\nIfpw \ntcm[n¨ncp¶p. \ntcm[n¨ IoS\min\nIÄ¡p ]Icambn GXm\pw _Z IoS\min\nIfpw IpanÄ\min\nIfpw If\min\nIfpw ImÀjnI kÀhIemimebpsS in]mÀibpsS ASnØm\¯n kwØm\ kÀ¡mÀ AwKoIcn¨psImWvSv D¯chnd¡n. Hcp hÀjImemh[nbnte¡mbncp¶p Cu in]mÀi. Hcp hÀj¯n\Iw Cu _Z IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£sb¡pdn¨v ]T\w \S¯n dnt¸mÀ«v \ÂIWsa¶mbncp¶p \nÀt±iw. F¶m Cu _Z IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXXzs¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]T\w cWvSphÀjambn«pw ]qÀ¯nbmbn«nÃ. _Z IoS\min\nIfmbn in]mÀisNbvXn«pÅ CanUmt¢m{]nUv, t¢mÀss^dnt^mkv XpS§nb IoS\min\nIÄ Nne hntZi cmPy§fn \ntcm[n¡s¸SpItbm D]tbmKw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯s¸SpItbm sNbvXn«pÅ IoS\min\nIfmWv. "t\Àhv GPâv' F¶ t]cnednbs¸Sp¶ \ntbm\nt\m«ntembnUv hn`mK¯nse CanUm t¢m{]nUv F¶ IoS\min\n tX\o¨ tImfWnIfpsS hn\mi¯n\p ImcWamIpsa¶Xn\m ASp¯ Ime¯v bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\nse ]e cmPy§fnepw \ntcm[n¨n«pWvSv.

Adp]XpIfn AÛpXacp¶pIfmbn hntijn¸n¡s¸«v hn]Wnbnse¯nb IoS\min\nIÄ acW¯nsâ HäaqenIfmbn amdnbn«pw cmPys¯ IoS\min\n \nba¯n Imem\pkrXamb t`ZKXn hcp¯phm³ A[nIrXÀ C\nbpw X¿mdmbn«nÃ. ]cnØnXn, Pemib§Ä, PohPme§Ä, a®v F¶nhsb A\phZ\obamb ]cn[n¡pw ]Xn·S§papIfn IoS\min\nIÄ aen\oIcn¨n«pw IoS\min\n \nb{´W \nba§Ä kab_ÔnXambn ]cnjvIcn¡m³ X¿mdmIm¯Xv IoS\min\n tem_nbpsS k½À±¯n\p hg§p¶Xp sImWvStà F¶p kwibnt¡WvSncn¡p¶p.

IqSpX hnhc§Ä¡v: 9387100119.

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kpKÔhyRvP\amb aªfnsâ amkvacnI iàn sb¡pdn¨dnbm¯ aebmfnIÄ ImWnÃ. Idn¡q«p IÄ¡v cpNnbpw \ndhpw \ÂIm³ am{XaÃ, Huj [ta·bnepw ap¶nemWv aªÄ. kuµcyhÀ[I DXv]¶§fnse {]IrX...
Noc; C\§fpw IrjncoXnbpw
tIcf¯n hmWnPymSnØm\¯n IrjnsN¿p¶ Ce¡dnhnfbmWv Noc. XmcXtay\ IpdªsNehn IrjnsN¿mhp¶ Cu hnfsb CShnfbmbpw X\nhnfbmbpw D]tbmKn¨phcp¶p. Npcp§nb ImewsImWvSv hnfshSp¡...
ISs¡Wnbn IpSp§n C´y³ IÀjI³
C´ybnse IÀjI³ IS¯n P\n¡p¶p, IS¯n Pohn¡p¶p, IS¯n acn¡p¶p F¶mWv {_n«ojv C´ybnse IÀjIÀ¡p \ÂInbncp¶ hntijWw. IÀjIcpsS t]cn AkwJyw t£a]²XnIÄ {]Jym]n¡pIbpw _m¦pIÄ...
C\n ]¨¡dn hn¡mw, Hm¬sse\neqsS
ho«phf¸n Irjn sN¿p¶ ]¨¡dnIÄ C\n ho«nencp¶p Xs¶ hn¡mw. CS\ne¡mcnÃmsX ]¨¡dnIÄ hn¡m\pw anI¨ \nehmcapÅh hm§m\pw C\n Hscmä ¢n¡v aXn. \ham[ya¯nse lcnXhn¹hambn amdp...
]mäm\n sXfnbn¨p; kvt{Sm_dn hb\m«nepw hnfbpw
hyhkmbw am{XaÃ, Irjnbpw X\n¡v hg§psa¶v Hcn¡Â IqSn sXfnbn¨ncn¡pIbmWv tPmWn ]mäm\n. hb\mSv tN¼À Hm^v tImtagvknsâ {]knUâv, hn³skâv Unt]mÄ skmsskän \mjW t{]mPÎv Hm...
]¨¡dn @ 365 Znhkw
ImÀjnI ]mc¼cyt¯msSm¸w kkyimkv{X¯nse _ncpZhpw cam tZhnsb Irjnbpambn Gsd ASp¸n¨p. Hmtcm kkys¯bpw Adnbp¶Xns\m¸w AhbpsS ]cnNcW coXnIÄ¡pw {]m[m\yw \evInbXn\m ho«nte...
th\¨qSn IdhamSpIÄ¡pw tImgnIÄ¡pw IcpXÂ
{]Xntcm[tijn hfsc¡pd bm³ km[yXbpÅ th\¡m ew XpS§p¶Xn\p apt¼ Dcp¡Ä¡v hncacp¶pIfpw {]Xntcm[ Ip¯nhbv]pIfpw Hcp tUmIvSdpsS \nÀt±i{]Imcw \ÂInbncn¡Ww. t\cn«pÅ kqcyhn...
F³Pn\nbdnwKv ]T\t¯msSm¸w Irjnbpw
H¶n\pw kabanà F¶ bphXz¯nsâ Øncw Iaân H«pw hnizmkanà kzcq]n\v. kz´w PohnX¯neqsS ImWn¨p XcnIbmWv Cu 21 Imc³. ]me¡mSv tImgn¸mdbnse Aley kvIqÄ Hm^v F³Pn\nbdnwKv B³...
tKmime _n\phnsâ hntij§Ä
Irjn kwkvImcamWv. PohnXamIWw þ H¸w PohkÔmcW amÀKhpamIWw. Irjn ]ehnfIsf ASnØm\am¡nbmIpw Adnbs¸SpI. sX§[njvTnX Irjn, s\Ã[njvTnX Irjn Fs¶ms¡. F¶mÂ, Idh¸ip¡sf {][m\...
IrjnsN¿mw, shÅcn
\pjy³ BZyambn D]tbmKn¨ ]¨¡dnhn`mKw shÅcnbmsW¶p IcpXs¸Sp¶p. tIcf¯n shÅcnsb¶v Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv Idn¡v D]tbmKn¡p¶ ]¨IeÀ¶ shÅ\ndt¯mSpIqSnb shÅcnbpw IWnhbv¡p¶Xn\v D]tbmKn...
Adnbmw, AIämw \mbv¡fpsS NÀatcmK§Ä
\mbv¡fpsS BtcmKy¯ntâbpw kuµcy¯nsâbpw I®mSnbmWv AhbpsS NÀaw. ]ehn[¯nepw Xc¯nepapÅ NÀatcmK§Ä \mbv¡sf _m[n¡mw. Ch XpS¡¯n Xs¶ IsWvS¯n NnInXvknt¡WvSXv hfsc {][m\amW...
cWvSc G¡dn Irjnsshhn[ysamcp¡n Z¼XnIÄ
]ghÀK§fpw ]¨¡dnIfpw \ndª GZ³ tXm«w. CXpXs¶bmWv Xncph\´]pcw shªmdpwaqSv AbncqÀtImW¯p]p¯³ho«n tUm. D¯asâbpw `mcy A¼nfnbpsSbpw cWvSctb¡tdmfw hcp¶ ]pcbnS¯n\p tNcp¶...
AWp¡sf AIämw, AInSpho¡w XSbmw
_mIvSocnb, sshdkv, ^wKkv XpS§n AWp¡Ä AInSpho¡w DWvS¡mw. apJytcmKtlXp _m IvSocnbIÄ BWv . hr¯nlo\amb ]cnkchpw, sXmgp¯pw, Dcp¡fpsS ]cn]me\¯nepWvSmIp¶ hogvNIfpamW...
AtIzdnb¯nse t]mcmfnIÄ
tai¸pd¯v ]fp¦v Ipanft]mse Pew \nd¨ ¥mkv t¥m_v, AXn AXnkpµc\mb Hcp t]mcmfn aÕyw. kz´ambn Hcp AtIzdnbw \ne\ndp¯Ww F¶v Gsd B{KlapÅ, F¶m C\nbpw AXn\p apXncm¯hÀ¡v ...
`qan GsäSp¡Â HmÀUn\³kv: Irjn `qan tImÀ¸tdäpIfpsS ssIIfnte¡v
2013 se `qan GsäSp¡Â \nba¯n shÅw tNÀ¯psImWvSv tI{µ Kh¬ saâv sImWvSph¶ HmÀUn\³kv tImÀ]tdäpIÄ¡v btYjvSw Irjn`qan ]nSn¨S¡m\pw IÀjIsc IpSnbnd¡m\pw Ahkcw \ÂIp¶p. `q...
DZym\¯nse Pzen¡pw \mfw
DZym\ A´co£¯n Hcp Pzen¡p¶ ]´wþAXmWv ^vsfbnanwKv tSmÀ¨v F¶v hnfnt¸cpÅ _nÂt_ÀPnb ]ncanUmenkv F¶ ]qs¨Sn. XWvSnepw CeIfnepw kkyckw\nd¨v amwkf kz`mhw Im«p¶ {_psaenb...
22 skân 28 C\w ]ghÀK§Ä: ]m¸gw apX and¡nÄ {^q«phsc, FÃmw hntZin
]g§sf¶ph¨m tPmk^n\v Poh\mWv. shdpw ]g§fÃ, adp\mS³ ]g§Ä. N§\mticn Ipcy¨³]SnbnepÅ Imc¡m«p ho«n sI.sP. tPmk^nsâ ho«papäsam¶p {i²n¨m CXpa\knemIpw. hoSp\n¡p¶ 22 ...
^n©pIfpsS ]cn]me\hpw {]P\\hpw
ImemIme§fmbn a\pjyÀ ]eXcw ]£nIsf hfÀ¯nhcp¶p. F¶m ]c¼cmKXssienbn C¶pw XpSÀ¶phcp¶ ]cnNcWcoXnIÄ¡v A]mIXItfsdbpWvSv. AXv AhbpsS {]P\\w, kz`mhw, {]Xntcm[tijn F¶nhs...
]mem¡mSv BÀ]nFknsâ tX\o¨t¯m«w
d_ÀIÀjIÀ hnebnSnhpaqew _p²nap«p¶ kmlNcy¯nemWv ]membv¡Sp¯pÅ ]mem¡mSv d_À DXv]mZI kwL¯nsâ {]knUâv sh«n¡pg¡pt¶Â hn.bp. tPmk^nsâ aI³ enPp tPmkpw kplr¯v ]qh¯m\n¡pt¶Â...
B]Xv _mÔh³ Bßan{Xw sImt¡m
PmXI¯n i\nbpsS A]lmcw hnSmsX ]nSnIqSnb ImÀjnIhnf GXv F¶p tNmZn¨m s]s«s¶mcp¯cw sImt¡m F¶mbncn¡pw. GXp XWe¯pw HXp§n¡qSn hfcpIbpw CShnfbm¡nbmÂt]mepw bmsXmcp ]cn`...
Irjnsb kvt\ln¡p¶ ^mÀtagvkv ¢_v
Irjnsb kvt\ln¡p¶ Hcp Iq«w BfpIÄ. ChÀ¡m{Klw \à ]¨¡dn am{Xw. hnjw tNÀ¶, IoS\min \nIfpw cmkhfhpw tNÀ¯p WvSm¡p¶ `£y DXv]¶ §Äs¡Xntc bpÅ {]Xntcm[amWnXv. F¶m Iq«mb...
sNdphb cma³ \mS³ s\Ãn\§fpsS hn¯p_m¦v
\mS³ s\Âhn¯pIfpsS Imhemfmb am\´hmSn sNdphb cmasâ hn¯p_m¦v IS IS¶v Ad_n \m«nepw. tZmlbnse aebmfnIfpsS Iq«mbva ac`qanbn IWvSw sh«n NIncnt¨mdp ]pX¨v \\bn«v...
F\nbv¡msI thWvSXv izkn¡m³ hmbp am{Xw
{_n«Wnse {]kn² tdm¡v kwKoX {Kq¸mb tlmfoknsâ {]kn²amb BJym\ \mS³]m«nse hcnIÄ XpS§p¶Xn§s\bmWv. hntZicmPy§fnse kwKoXt{]anIsf B\µkmKc¯nemdmSn¨v h³lnämbn amdnb Cu hc...
]ip¡Ä¡pw thWw Hcp Zn\Ncy
DjvWtaJem {]tZi§fnse I¶pImenIfn 70 iXam\t¯mfw cm{Xn kab§fnemWv aZne£Ww ImWn¨p XpS§p¶Xv. aZne£Ww Bcw`n¨tijw 12þ14 aWn¡qdpIÄ¡ptijw Ip¯nhbv¡p¶XmWv sN\ G¡m\pÅ kcf...
]pXnb d_dn\§fpw s]mSnIpanÄ tcmKhpw
Sm¸p sNbvXpsImWvSncn¡p¶ d_À ac§Ä¡v ITn\amb tcmK_m[ DWvSmbm Ahbn \n¶pÅ DXv]mZ\w ap¸XpiXam\w hsc Ipdªpt]mIp¶Xmbn IW¡m¡nbn«pWvSv. d_À ac§fpsS hfÀ¨sbbpw Sm¸p sN¿p...
h\yarK§fn \n¶pw Irjnsb c£n¡mw
]Snªmdv kqcy³ AkvXan¨p Ignªm tIcf¯nse ]e aetbmc{Kma§fpw C¶v `oXnbpsS \ngen BWv. GXp kab¯pw Xsâ ]d¼ntem ho«papät¯m {]Xy£s¸Sm³ km[yXbpÅ Icnhoc³amcpsS `oXnbnÂ.a\...
Hcp skâv an\n t]mfnluknepw shÀ«n¡Â ^manwKv
Irjn sN¿m³ Øe]cn anXn t\cnSp¶hÀ¡v hensbmcm izmkamWv tIcf ImÀjnI kÀhIemimebpsS B\¡bw ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µ ¯nse sslsSIv IÀa tk\ hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯ Hcp skâv an\n t]mfn lukv...
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