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P\§sf sImÃp¶ IoS\min\n \nba§Ä
tUm. tPmkv tPmk^v

{]^kÀ B³Uv slUv, hnÚm\hym]\hn`mKw, ImÀjnI tImfPv, ]S¶¡mSv


F³tUmkÄ^m³ DÄs¸sS XeapdIsf ZpcnX¯nemgv¯p¶ IoS\min\n Zpc´§Ä XpSÀ¡Ybmbn amdpt¼mgpw cmPys¯ IoS\min\n\nb{´W \nba§Ä C¶pw Ip¯gnªXmbn XpScp¶psh¶v ]T\ dnt¸mÀ«v. Hmtcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm IoS\min\nbpsSbpw A\phZ\obamb AhinjvS hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¡msX IoS\min\nIÄ¡v Ct¸mgpw cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xmbn \yqUÂlnbnse skâÀ t^mÀ kb³kv B³Uv F³htbm¬saâv (knFkvC) ASp¯Ime¯v ]pd¯nd¡nb Hcp dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ hmWnPy]cambn ]pd¯nd¡m³ A\paXn \ÂIn¡gnªXn\p tijhpw aXnbmb kpc£m]T\§Ä \S¯mdnÃ. IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmKs¯¡pdn¨v Kh¬saâv hnÚm\hym]\ GP³knIÄ IÀjIÀ¡nSbn \S¯p¶ t_m[h¡cW ]cn]mSnIÄ XoÀ¯pw A]cym]vXamWv. GsXÃmw hnfIfn {]tbmKn¡p¶Xn\mtWm Hcp IoS\min\n¡v tI{µ C³skIvSnsskkv t_mÀUv cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂInbncn¡p¶Xv B hnfIfneÃmsX aäp hnfIfnepw AtX IoS\min\n Xfn¡p¶Xn\v ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpw hnhn[ t_mÀUpIfpw in]mÀi \ÂIp¶Xmbpw knFkvC bpsS ]T\ dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. {]mtZinI Xe¯n \S¯p¶ ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv cPnkvt{Sj\nÃm¯ hnfIfnepw IoS\min\nIÄ in]mÀi sN¿p¶sX¶v ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ AhImis¸Sp¶psWvS¦nepw ]et¸mgpw C¯cw ]T\§Ä \S¡mdnÃ. IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmK¯n\p thWvSn F«phÀjw ap¼v tPmbnâv ]mÀesaâdn I½än (sP]nkn) kaÀ¸n¨ \nÀt±i§Ä Ct¸mgpw \S¸m¡nbn«nCsöpw knFkv dnt¸mÀ«v shfns¸Sp¯p¶p.

kzX{´ C´ybn dnt¸mÀ«v sN¿s¸« BZys¯ h³IoS\min\n Zpc´w kw`hn¨Xv tIcf¯nembncp¶p. 1958  102 t]cpsS Poh³ A]lcn¨ Cu IoS\min\n Zpc´¯n\p ImcWw Atacn¡bn \n¶pw I¸en Cd¡paXnsNbvX `£yhkvXp¡fn CussX³ ]mc¯tbm¬ F¶ IoS\min\n IeÀ¶Xmbncp¶p. F¶m cmPy¯v ka{Kamb Hcp IoS\min\n \nba¯n\v cq]w \ÂIm³ hoWvSpw 10 hÀjw IqSn thWvSnh¶p. cWvSp I½oj\pIfpsS {]hÀ¯\¯n\p tijamWv 1968  cmPys¯ IoS\min\n \nba¯n\v cq]w \ÂInbXv. Cu \nba§Ä \S¸m¡p¶Xn\pÅ A\p_Ô N«§Ä 1971  am{XamWv \nehn h¶Xv. ^coZm_mZv BØm\ambn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUmWv \nbaw \S¸m¡m\pÅ GP³kn. t_mÀUnsâ IognepÅ cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ A\phZn¡p¶p. Hcp ]pXnb IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xn\p ap¼v AXnsâ ]mcnØnXnI {]XymLmX§Ä, {]tXyI IoS¯ns\XnscbpÅ Imcy£aamb {]hÀ¯\w, Ahjn]vX hnjmwiw XpS§nbhsb¡pdn¨v hniZamb ]T\§Ä \S¯n hnhc§Ä tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän¡v kaÀ¸n¨ncn¡Ww. iàamb kpc£m]co£W§Ä \S¯Wsa¶v ISemkn \nbaapsWvS¦nepw ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIm\pÅ kpc£m]co£W§Ä ]et¸mgpw {]lk\ambn amdp¶p. I¼\nIÄ \ÂIp¶ ]co£Whnhc§Ä \njv]£amb hniIe\¯n\p hnt[bam¡msX AtX]Sn apJhnebvs¡Sp¯psImWvSmWv an¡t¸mgpw cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶Xv. IoS\min\n hn]Wnbnend¡p¶Xn\p ap¼p hsc am{Xsa kpc£m ]T\§Ä \S¯mdpÅp. Irjn¡mcnse¯p¶ IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£m]T\w \S¯p¶Xv tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ D¯chmZnXztabÃ.

]©m_nse ImÀjnI taJebmb `«n³Ubn \n¶pw cmPØm\nse _n¡m\dnte¡pÅ s{Sbn³ \¼À 339 "Im³kÀ s{Sbn³' F¶mWv Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. Cu s{Sbn³ `«n³Ubn \n¶pw Znhtk\ 70 Im³kÀ tcmKnIsf hoXw _n¡m\dnse doPW Im³kÀ skâdnte¡p sImWvSpt]mIp¶p. 1960 Ifnepw 70Ifnepw AanXamb IoS\min\n {]tbmK¯neqsS lcnXhn¹hw Act§dnb `«n³Ubnse {Kma§fn \n¶pÅhcmWv Cu Im³kÀ tcmKnIÄ. ]©m_nse `«n³Ubpw tIcf¯nse ImkÀtKmUpw t]mse cmPys¯ Nne taJeIfn IoS\min\nIfpsS A\nb{´nX D]tbmKw Zpc´w hnXbv¡pt¼mÄ AXpXSbp¶Xn\v XnI¨pw A]cym]vXamWv \nehnepÅ IoS\min\n \nb{´W \nba§Ä. Hcn¡Â Irjn¡mcnse¯n¡gnªm GXp IoS\min\nbpw A\nb{´nXambn hn¡m\pw GXp hnfbnepw Aimkv{Xobambn D]tbmKn¡m\papÅ A]ISIcamb kmlNcyw Ct¸mgpw \ne\n¡p¶p. IoS\min\n tem_nbpsS iàamb k½À±w ImcWw \nehnepÅ \nbaw ]gpXS¨p \S¸m¡mt\m Imem\pkrXambn ]cnjvIcn¡mt\m km[n¡p¶nÃ.

C´ybn Ct¸mÄ cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶ 241 IoS\min\nIfn 59 F®¯n\v ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¨n«nsöv knFkvC bpsS dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. hnfIfn {]tbmKn¡p¶ IoS\min\nIÄ ]qÀ®ambpw hnLSn¨p t]mImsX hfscs¨dnsbmcp Awiw a®nepw sNSnIfnepw Iptd¡met¯s¡¦nepw Ahtijn¡pw. a\pjyÀ¡pw PohnIÄ¡pw A]ISIcamIm¯ ChbpsS Afhns\ ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n (FwBÀFÂ) AYhm amIvknaw sdknUyq enanäv) F¶p hnfn¡p¶p. \à IrjncoXnIÄ ]n´pSÀ¶Xn\p tijhpw hnfIfn ImWs¸Sp¶ Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ A\phZ\obamb ]cn[nbmWv FwBÀFÂ. ]pXnb IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ e`n¡m³ FwBÀF kw_Ôn¨ hnhc§Ä A\phmcyasænepw 2004 apX CXv \nÀ_Ôam¡psa¶v tI{µ Irjn a{´mebw Dd¸p \ÂInbncp¶p. Cu \n_Ô\ C\nbpw \S¸m¡nbn«nÃ. F¶mÂ, \nch[n hnhmZ§Ä¡ptijhpw FwBÀF kw_Ôn¨ hnhc§Ä CÃmsX Xs¶ cPnkvt{Sj³ \ÂIp¶ ]Xnhv cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän Ct¸mgpw XpScpIbmWv.

cPnÌÀ sNbvX FÃm IoS\min\nIfpsSbpw A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ ]cn[n \nÝbn¡m\pÅ D¯chmZnXzw ^pUv tk^vän B³Uv Ìm³UmÀUvkv AtYmdnän Hm^v C´y¡mWv. cPnÌÀ sNbvX IoS\min\nIfn th¸v A[njvTnX IoS\min\nIÄ, Nne ssPh IoS\min\nIÄ F¶nhbpÄs¸Sp¶ 40 Hmfw IoS\min\nIfpsS FwBÀF \nÝbn¡m³ \nba]camb _m[yXbnÃ. Ahtijn¡p¶ IoS\min\nIfn 59 F®¯nsâ FwBÀF C\nbpw \nÝbn¨n«nÃ. FwBÀF \nÝbn¨ hnfIfpsS Imcy¯nemIs« tImUIvkvt]mepÅ A´mcmjv{S am\ZÞ§Ä ]men¨n«panÃ. A]qÀWhpw Aimkv{XobhpamWv FwBÀF \nÝbn¨ncn¡p¶Xv. Nne IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯n cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶ FÃm hnfIfnepw FwBÀF ]T\w \S¯nbn«nÃ. AtXkabw Nne IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯n cPnÌÀ sN¿m¯ hnfIÄ¡pthWvSn ^pUv tk^vän B³Uv Ìm³tUÀUv AtYmdnän FwBÀF ]T\w \S¯pIbpw sNbvXncn¡p¶p.

IoS\min\n I¼\nIÄ GsXÃmw hnfIÄ¡p thWvSnbmtWm Hcp {]tXyI IoS\min\n tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUn cPnÌÀ sNbvXncn¡p¶Xv B hnfIfn am{Xw B {]tXyI IoS\min\n in]mÀi sN¿m\mWv \nba]camb AhImiw. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUpw cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nänbpw Nne {]tXyI hnfIfnse {]tXyI IoS§fpsS \nb{´W¯n\pthWvSn am{XamWv IoS\min\nIÄ¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ A\phZn¡p¶Xv. F¶m tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ \nÀt±i¯n \n¶pw hyXykvX ambn aäp hnfIfnse IoS\nb{´W¯n\p thWvSpbpw AtX IoS\min\n Xs¶ ImÀjnI kÀÆIemimeIfpw kvss] kkv t_mÀUv, KthjW tI{µ§Ä, tlmÀ«nIĨÀ anj³ XpS§nb GP³knIfpw in]mÀi sN¿p¶p.

]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIfpsS cq]¯nemWv Cu Øm]\§Ä hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ \ÂIp¶Xv. ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsS in]mÀiIÄ tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀ Unsâ \nÀt±i§fpambn kacks¸Sm¯Xv ]et¸mgpw {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡p¶p. IoS\min\nIfpsS Ahjn]vX hnjmwis¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]T\§Ä C¯cw hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ Akm[yam¡p¶p. `£ykpc£bnepw CXv {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡pw. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ AtX in]mÀiIÄ ]n´pScm\mWv _m[yXsb¦nepw {]mtZinIamb {]tXyIXIÄ IW¡nseSp¯mWv C¯cw hyXykvXamb in]mÀiIÄ \ÂIp¶sX¶mWv AhImihmZw. F¶m ]et¸mgpw aXnbmb kpc£m]T\§Ä \S¯msXbmWv Cu in]mÀiIsf¶XmWv hmkvXhw. s\Ãv, amhv, IpcpapfIv, Gew, tXbne, Icn¼v XpS§nb 11 hnfIÄ ]cntim[n¨t¸mÄ ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpw hnhn[ t_mÀUpIfpw KthjW Øm]\§fpw \ÂIp¶ in]mÀiIfpw IoS\min\nIfpsS cPnkvt{Sj\pambn an¡t¸mgpw s]mcp¯s¸Sp¶nsömWv knFkvC bpsS ]T\w IsWvS¯nbXv. cPnkvt{Sj³ CÃm¯ Hcp IoS\min\nbpsS AhinjvSw \nba]cambn Hcp hnfbn IsWvS¯m³ ]mSnÃm¯XmWv. A§s\ IsWvS¯nbm AXv IeÀ¸mbn ]cnKWn¡s¸Spw.

Hcp hnfbn IoS\min\n Xfn¨pIgnªm AXv hnLSn¨v \nÀhocyamIp¶Xn\pÅ kabw Ignªp am{Xsa hnfshSp¯v D]tbmKn¡phm³ ]mSpÅp. Ahjn]vX hnjhocyw kw_Ôn¨ ]T\§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemWv Hmtcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm IoS\min\nbpsSbpw {]tbmK¯n\pw hnfshSp¸n\panSbnepÅ CSthf \nÝbn¡p¶Xv. Im¯ncn¸p Imew (Witing period) F¶dnbs¸Sp¶ Cu CSthfbv¡ptijw hnfshSp¯m am{Xsa Dev]¶w kpc£nXambncn¡pIbpÅq. A]ISIcaÃm¯ Afhn am{Xta IoS\min\n hnfshSp¯ Dev]¶¯n AS§nbn«pÅpsh¶v Dd¸m¡m\mWv Im¯ncn¸pImew \nÝbn¡p¶Xv. hnfshSp¯ tijw t\cn«p `£n¡p¶ ]gw ]¨¡dn hnfIfn Im¯ncn¸p Imew IqSpX {]m[m\yaÀln¡p¶p. IoS\min\n¡v cPnkvt{Sj³ e`n¡p¶Xn\v Im¯ncn¸pIme¯nsâ hniZhnhc§fpw tI{µIoS\min\n t_mÀUn\pw cPnkvt{Sj³ I½nän¡pw \ÂInbncn¡Ww. F¶m an¡ IoS\min\nIfpsS Imcy¯nepw Im¯ncn¸pIme¯nsâ Imcy¯n hyàXtbm ]qÀWXtbm CÃ. Nne IoS\min\nIÄ¡v Im¯ncn¸pImew in]mÀi sNbvXnt«bnÃ. D]t`màmhnsâ BtcmKys¯ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw AXy´w A]ISIcamb ØnXnbmWnXv.

ASnØm\Xe¯n IÀjIcpsS CSbnte¡p hcpt¼mÄ ØnXn CXnepw Zb\obamWv. tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâ \nÀt±i§Ä¡\pkcn¨Ã IÀjIÀ ]et¸mgpw IoS\min\nIÄ hm§p¶Xv. IoS\min\n hnev]\¡mcmWv an¡t¸mgpw IÀjIcpsS amÀKZÀin. Nnet¸msgÃmw kz´w [mcWb\pkcn¨pw IÀjI³ IoS\min\n hm§p¶p. At©m Btdm hÀjw IqSpt¼mgmWv ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ ]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIÄ ]pXp¡p¶Xv. CXn\Iw ]e ]pXnb IoS\min\nIfpw hn]Wnbnend¡nbncn¡pw. CXv ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIÄ ]mt¡Pv Hm^v {]mIvSokkv in]mÀiIfn DÄs¸Sp¯n ]pXp¡pt¼mtg¡pw Cu IoS\min\nIÄ ]gbXmbn¡gnªncn¡pw. ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsS in]mÀiIfn DÄs¸Sp¯¶Xn\pÅ Cu ImeXmakw ImcWw IoS\min\n hnev]\¡mÀ kz´w \nebn ]pXnb IoS\min\nIÄ IÀjIÀ¡v in]mÀi sN¿p¶p. Cu in]mÀiIÄ¡v tI{µ IoS\min\n t_mÀUnsâtbm ImÀjnI kÀhIemimeIfpsStbm in]mÀiIfpambn s]mcp¯sam¶papWvSmbncn¡pIbnÃ. tI{µ \nb{´W \nba¯nse ]gpXpIÄ apXem¡n \ntcm[n¨ IoS\min\nIfpw cPnkvt{Sj\nÃm¯ hymP IoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmK¯n\v \n_Ô\IÄ GÀs¸Sp¯nbn«pÅ IoS\min\nIfpsaÃmw hn]Wnbn kpe`ambn hnägn¡s¸Sp¶p. knFkvC \S¯nb kÀshbn ]s¦Sp¯ cWvSp IÀjIÀ \ntcm[n¡s¸« F³tUmkÄ^m³ Ct¸mgpw D]tbmKn¨phcp¶Xmbn k½Xn¨p.

2003  knFkvC \S¯nb ]T\§fn s]]vkn, sIms¡mtImf {_m³UpIfn A\phZ\obamb ]cn[nbnepw ]Xn·S§v A[nIw Afhn IoS\min\nIÄ AS§nbncn¡p¶Xmbn IsWvS¯nbncp¶p. _lpcmjv{S I¼\nIfpsS hnhn[ {_m³Uv Ip¸nshůnepw amcIamb IoS\min\nIÄ A\phZ\obamb Afhnepw IqSpXemsW¶pw ]T\§fn sXfnªncp¶p. CtX¯pSÀ¶v ioXf]m\ob§fnse IoS\min\nIfpsS AhinjvSs¯bpw kpc£m am\ZÞ§sfbpw Ipdn¨v ]Tn¡m³ Hcp kwbpà ]mÀesaâdn I½nän¡v (sP]nkn) ]mÀesaâv cq]w \ÂIn. I½nän 2005  kaÀ¸n¨ dnt¸mÀ«n IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXamb D]tbmKw kw_Ôn¨v \nch[n in]mÀiIÄ DÄs¡mÅn¨ncp¶p. F¶m sP]nkn dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n¨v F«phÀjw Ignªn«pw Cu dnt¸mÀ«n ASnb´c{]m[m\yt¯msS kaÀ¸n¨ \nÀt±i§fn `qcn`mKhpw \S¸m¡s¸SmsX Ahtijn¸n¡pIbmWv. Hmtcm IoS\min\n¡pw Hmtcm hnfbnepapÅ ]camh[n A\phZ\obamb Ahjn]vX hnjmwi¯nsâ (FwBÀFÂ) \nÝbn¡msX cPnkvt{Sj³ \nÂIcpsX¶mbncp¶p Hcp {][m\ in]mÀi. CXn\pthWvSn IoS\min\n \nba¯n t`ZKXn sImWvSphcpsa¶v tI{µ Irjn a{´mebw Adnbn¨ncp¶psh¦nepw CXphscbpw \S]Snsbm¶psaSp¯n«nÃ. cPnÌÀ sNbvX IoS\min\nIsf¡pdn¨v I¼\nIÄ {]kn²oIcn¡p¶ eLpteJIfn Im¯ncn¸pImew kw_Ôn¨ hniZmwi§Ä tNÀ¯ncn¡Wsa¶ sP]nkn in]mÀibpw C\nbpw \S¸m¡nbn«nÃ. \ntcm[n¡s¸« IoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmKw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯nb IoS\min\nIfpw hym]Iambn Zpcp]tbmKw sN¿p¶nsöv Dd¸m¡Wsa¶Xmbncp¶p asämcp in]mÀi. CXnepw \S]Snsbm¶pambn«nÃ. C¯cw IoS\min\nIÄ hn¡p¶hÀs¡Xntc \S]Sn kzoIcn¡m³ \nbaw t`ZKXn sN¿Wsa¶ in]mÀi \S¸m¡p¶ Imcy¯nepw ]ptcmKXnsbm¶panÃ.

tIcf¯n 2011 tabn ssPhImÀjnI \bw \S¸m¡p¶Xnsâ `mKambn Nph¸p te_enepw aª te_enepapÅ hnjhocyw IqSnb GXm\pw IoS\min\nIfpw IpanÄ\min\nIfpw If\min\nIfpw \ntcm[n¨ncp¶p. \ntcm[n¨ IoS\min\nIÄ¡p ]Icambn GXm\pw _Z IoS\min\nIfpw IpanÄ\min\nIfpw If\min\nIfpw ImÀjnI kÀhIemimebpsS in]mÀibpsS ASnØm\¯n kwØm\ kÀ¡mÀ AwKoIcn¨psImWvSv D¯chnd¡n. Hcp hÀjImemh[nbnte¡mbncp¶p Cu in]mÀi. Hcp hÀj¯n\Iw Cu _Z IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£sb¡pdn¨v ]T\w \S¯n dnt¸mÀ«v \ÂIWsa¶mbncp¶p \nÀt±iw. F¶m Cu _Z IoS\min\nIfpsS kpc£nXXzs¯¡pdn¨pÅ ]T\w cWvSphÀjambn«pw ]qÀ¯nbmbn«nÃ. _Z IoS\min\nIfmbn in]mÀisNbvXn«pÅ CanUmt¢m{]nUv, t¢mÀss^dnt^mkv XpS§nb IoS\min\nIÄ Nne hntZi cmPy§fn \ntcm[n¡s¸SpItbm D]tbmKw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯s¸SpItbm sNbvXn«pÅ IoS\min\nIfmWv. "t\Àhv GPâv' F¶ t]cnednbs¸Sp¶ \ntbm\nt\m«ntembnUv hn`mK¯nse CanUm t¢m{]nUv F¶ IoS\min\n tX\o¨ tImfWnIfpsS hn\mi¯n\p ImcWamIpsa¶Xn\m ASp¯ Ime¯v bqtdm]y³ bqWnb\nse ]e cmPy§fnepw \ntcm[n¨n«pWvSv.

Adp]XpIfn AÛpXacp¶pIfmbn hntijn¸n¡s¸«v hn]Wnbnse¯nb IoS\min\nIÄ acW¯nsâ HäaqenIfmbn amdnbn«pw cmPys¯ IoS\min\n \nba¯n Imem\pkrXamb t`ZKXn hcp¯phm³ A[nIrXÀ C\nbpw X¿mdmbn«nÃ. ]cnØnXn, Pemib§Ä, PohPme§Ä, a®v F¶nhsb A\phZ\obamb ]cn[n¡pw ]Xn·S§papIfn IoS\min\nIÄ aen\oIcn¨n«pw IoS\min\n \nb{´W \nba§Ä kab_ÔnXambn ]cnjvIcn¡m³ X¿mdmIm¯Xv IoS\min\n tem_nbpsS k½À±¯n\p hg§p¶Xp sImWvStà F¶p kwibnt¡WvSncn¡p¶p.

IqSpX hnhc§Ä¡v: 9387100119.

Cd¨n Im³kÀ {]Xntcm[w (Nne [mcWIfpw hkvXpXIfpw)
an¡hmdpw FÃm kkvX\PohnIfpsSbpw Xmdmhnsâbpw Cd¨n sdUv aoäv C\¯nÂs¸Sp¶p. ]¨bv¡pw ]mNI¯n\ptijhpw Nph¶ \nd¯n ImWp¶ Cd¨nbmWv sdUvaoäv. 100 {Kmw sdUv eo³ Cd¨nbn a\p...
]¨¡dnss¯Ifnse {Km^vänwKv
_mÎocnb hm«s¯ {]Xntcm[n¡p¶ ]¨¡dnss¯IfpWvSm¡m³ D¯aamb amÀKamWv {Km^vänwKvv. dq«v tÌm¡mbn {]Xntcm[tijnbpÅ C\w IsWvS¯n AXn AXypXv]mZ\ tijnbpÅ ssXtNÀ¡p¶ coXnbmWnX...
ag¡me ]¨¡dn hnfIÄ: tcmKIoS \nb{´Ww
ag¡me¯v \ap¡v Ffp¸¯n IrjnsN¿m hp¶ shWvS, apfIv, hgpXn\ F¶nhbpsS IrjncoXnIÄ \mw a\knem¡n Ignªp. F¶m Chsb B{Ian¡p¶ tcmK IoS§fmWv C\nbpÅ {][m\ shÃphnfn. Ch t\cnS...
DZym\tim` sISp¯p¶hÀ
]q¡sfbpw sNSnIsfbpw kvt\ln¡pIbpw ]cnNcn¡m\njvSs¸SpIbpw sN¿p¶hÀ¡v A\ptbmPyamb ÌmÀ«¸v kwcw`amWv \gvkdn. Gähpw kuµcyt_m[ (aesthetic)
DXv]mZn¸n¡mw, KpWta³abpÅ ]¨¡dnss¯IÄ
tIcf¯n\mhiyw Hcp hÀjw 20 e£w S¬ ]¨¡dnbmWvv. F¶m ChnsS DXv]mZn¸n¡p¶Xv 8.50 e£w S¬ am{Xhpw. CXn \n¶p Xs¶ tIcf¯n\mhiyapÅXv DXv]mZn¸n¡p¶Xn F{Xam{Xw ]n¶nemWv \msa...
sa¨s¸« ssXIÄ DXv]mZn¸n¡mw Hcp¡mw, kky\gvkdn
\gvkdn cwKs¯ km[yXIÄ A\´amWv. hnjanÃm¯ ]¨¡dn `£n¡m³ P\w ho«phf¸n Irjn DuÀPnXam¡n. t{Km_mKv Irjnbpw t]mfnlukpIfpw IrXyX Irjnbpsams¡ ssX DXv]mZ\¯n h³ km[yXIfmW...
ssPhIrjn kwtbmPnXam¡n inhÚm\w
Irjnbpw ImÀjnIhr¯nbpw A\yambns¡mWvSncn¡p¶ Cu ImeL«¯n IrjnhnPbw hfsc {][m\aÀln¡p¶ H¶mWv. HcmÄ hnPbn¨ hgnbneqsS IS¶pt]mIphm\mWv ImÀjnI taJebnse A[nIw t]cpw {ian¡...
{]IrXn¡p IcpXÂ; `£Ww kpc£nXw
{]IrXn¡p IcpXÂ, `£ Ww kpc£nXw'' CXp ]dbp¶Xv tIm«bw Nmaw]Xm hSt¡S¯v tPmkv C½m\phÂ. shdpsX ]dbp¶XÃ. ]dªpXpS§nbn«v hÀjw Ccp]Xp Ignªp. ]d¨nensâ KpWw {]hr¯nbnepapWv...
Nph¸v C©n XmcamIp¶p
tIm«bw PnÃbnse ]m¼mSnbnepw ]cnkc{]tZi§fnepw Nph¸p \ndapÅ \à Dinc³ C©nbmWv ]pXpXmcw. ]m¼mSn IWvS¸Ån ho«n sI.kn. sNdnbm\v cWvSphÀj§Ä¡p ap³]v Ct´mt\jybnÂ\n¶p h¶ ...
kwtbmPnX Irjn]mT§Ä ]IÀ¶v tXmakv BâWn
A`n`mjI tPmen¡nsS kwtbmPnXIrjn¡pthWvSn h¡mes¯Sp¯ncn¡pIbmWv sslt¡mSXnbnse A`n`mjI\mb tXmakv BâWn. sIm¨n sh®e I®³]Ån ho«n Xmakn¡p¶ Ct±lw Xnc¡n« tPmen¡nsS In«p¶ k...
d_ÀtXm«w Im´mcnapfIptXm«w B¡n¡qsS?
d_dnsâ hne¯IÀ¨tbmSpIqSn hepXpw sNdpXpamb tXm«apSaIÄ hfscb[nIw km¼¯nI _p²nap«nemWv. cWvScsImÃw ap¼v 230þ240 cq] hnebpWvSmbncp¶ Øm\¯v 2016 se hne 150 XmsgbmWv. d...
IÀjI BßlXyIÄ¡p ]n¶nÂ
IÀjI BßlXyIÄ IqSnhcnIbmWv. ImÀ jnI hmbv]bpsSbpw ISs¡WnbpsSbpw D]Poh\amÀKanÃm¯Xnsâbpw t]cnÂ. CXn Npcp¡w NneXv Zn\]{X§fpsS XmfpIfneqsS IS¶v adhnbn a§p¶p.
a[pcn¡pw am¼g¡mew
Gähpw henb ^ew N¡, ]g§fpsS cmPmhv am¼ gw, am¼gw DXv]mZ\¯n ap¶nepff cmPyw `mcXw.... A¸phnsâ ]{X¯mfnse Iznkv hmb\ \memfptIÄ¡pwhn[w D¨Ømbnbn XpSÀ¶ Hcp sshIpt¶cw....
tZiob ImÀjnI hn]Wn \nehn hcp¶p, C\n Hcp cmPyw HscmäN´
C´ysbm«msI FÃm ImÀjnI hn]WnIsfbpw _Ôn¸n¡p¶ Hcp GIoIrX tZiob ImÀjnI hn]Wn hcp¶p. CXnsâ BZyL«ambn F«p kwØm\§fnse 21 ImÀjnI hn]WnIsf Hm¬sse\neqsS kwtbmPn¸n¡p¶....
hfÀ¯p ]£nIfnse tcmK{]Xntcm[w
a\pjycnse¶t]mse Xs¶ hfÀ¯p ]£nIfnepw tcmKw h¶Xn\p tijw NnInÕn¡p¶Xnt\¡mÄ \ÃXv tcmKw hcmsX t\m¡p¶XmWv. tcmK{]Xntcm[ \S]SnIÄ¡p ]pdta imkv{Xobamb aäp ]cn]me\{Ia§Ä Ir...
Hcp§mw, agbv¡papt¼
th\¡mew Xocmdmbn. A[nIw XmaknbmsX a¬kq¬ Bcw`n¡pw. agbv¡p ap¼v ]¨¡dn \«m Pq¬þPqsse amkt¯msS hnfshSp¡mw. th\ Ahkm\w (tabv amkw ]IpXn¡p tijw) \«v agsb¯p¶tXmsS h...
ASp¡ft¯m«w: Adnªncnt¡WvS Imcy§Ä
ho«papät¯m sSdkn\papIfntem, Asæn _m¡Wnbntem \ndsb ]qhpw ImbvIfpambn\n¡p¶ ip²amb ]¨¡dnIÄ GsXmcp ho«½bpsSbpw kz]v\amWv. aäv tPmen¯nc¡pIÄ¡nSbnÂ, ASp¡ft¯m«¯nÂ.....
DXv]mZ\w hÀ[n¸n¡p¶Xn\v F^v ]n F^v {ZmhIhfw
IÀjI³ amknIbn (P\phcne¡w 2016) tlmantbm acp¶p]tbmKn¨pÅ Irjnsb¸änbpÅ teJ\¯nÂ, PohmarXw {]tXyIcoXnbn Xbmdm¡p¶Xns\¡pdn¨v {]Xn]mZn¨ncp¶p. Irjnbn tlmantbm acp¶pIÄ...
IrjnbnS¯nse kv{Xo Iq«mbva
{]IrXnsb kwc£n¨vþ a®dnªv IrjnIÄ \S¯p¶ IÀjIsc ImWWsa¦n DÄ\mS³ {Kma§fnte¡v bm{XsN¿Ww. hymhkmbnIþhmWnPyIrjn coXn {]Nmcw t\Snbt¸mgpw ]cnØnXn kwc£n¨pÅ ]mc¼cy Irjnco...
kwtbmPnX Irjnbpambn iymw
H¶v H¶n\v XpWbmIp¶ kwtbmPnX IrjncoXn {]mhÀ¯nIam¡pIbmWv bph IÀjI³. sImÃw ]«mgn ssIXh\ ho«n iymw IpamÀ F¶ 38 Imc\mWv Xsâ cWvSc G¡dn Irjnsshhn[ysamcp¡p¶Xv. t]mfn...
kÀhmwK kpKÔw]c¯pw Iman\n apÃIÄ
a¯p ]nSn¸n¡p¶ lrZblmcnbmb kpKÔw hmcnhnXdp¶ sNdnb shfp¯ ]q¡Ä \ndª Ipäns¨Sn... ]q¡Äs¡Ãmw aWnbpsS BIrXn... CeIfmIs« Xnf¡apÅ Cfw ]¨ \nd¯n \ndªp hfcp¶p. CeIÄ¡papWvS...
Adnbmw, AbÂkwØm\§fnse t]mfnlukv Irjn
t]mfnlukv Irjn \ãamsW¶ A`n{]mbw hym]IamWv. F¶m C§s\sbmcp A`n{]mb¯nse¯p¶Xn\p ap¼v Xangv\m«nse slmkqÀ t]mepÅ Øe§fnse A\p`h§Ä¡qSn Adnbp¶Xv \¶mbncn¡pw. PnÃm tlmÀ«...
DXv]mZ\hpw kwkvIcWhpw hn]W\hpw, CXv s\Ãnbm¼Xn tamUÂ
s\Ãnbm¼Xn aeapIfn 900 G¡dn ]c¶pInS¡p¶ tXm«§Ä. DXv]mZ\hpw kvwkvIcWhpw hn]W\hpw GtIm]n¸n¨v kwtbmPnX Irjn k{¼Zmb¯n\p amXrI Im«pIbmWv s\Ãnbm¼Xnbnse IrjnhIp¸n\p Io...
\mtKjn\p a\kpJw IrjnbneqsS
tImgnt¡mSv \KclrZb¯n PohnXw, kz´ambn Hcp \à _nkn\kv, \à hcpam\w. ]s£ \mtKjv ss]¡v B PohnX¯n kt´mjw IsWvS¯m³ IgnªnÃ. Ipd¨p Øew hm§n. henb Bfpw _lfhpw CÃm¯ HcnS...
I·Z¯n ImhpWvSv, Imhemfmbv \mcmbW\pw
CXv I®qÀ PnÃbnse shÅqcn\Sp¯pÅ s]cfs¯ dn«.Irjn AknÌâv F.hn.\mcmbW³ (63).ho«p hf¸n ]¨¸pw IpfnÀabpapWvSm¡n ]pXpXeapd¡v ImÀjnIhr¯nbpsS alXzw ]IÀ¶p \ÂIpIbmWv Ct±lw....
arK ]cn]me\w: kab_ÔnX A\pjvTm\w
Idhbv¡p apt¶]ip¡sfIpfn¸n¡p¶ coXn Ipsdtbsd £ocIÀjIÀ A\phÀ¯n¡p¶pWvSv. shfp¸n\p ]ip¡sf Ipfn¸n¡Ww F¶p imTyw ]nSn¡Wsa¶nÃ. AInSpw ]n³ImepIfpw ]ndIphihpw IgnInbm aXnb...
hnjclnX ]¨¡dnbpambn ]¨¸Ån¡qSw
hnjclnX ]¨¡dn hnfIfpsS hfÀ¯pioew hcpw XeapdIÄ¡v ]Icp¶Xn\v ]Ån¡qS§fnse ]¨¡dnt¯m«§Ä¡mbn«pWvSv. kwØm\ IrjnhIp¸nsâ ka{K ]¨¡dnIrjn hnIk\ ]²Xn C¡mcy¯n XoÀ¯pw BZchÀln...
aªÄ Bcm[\bv¡pw Blmc¯n\pw ]ns¶ Huj[¯n\pw
kpKÔhyRvP\ambn Blmc¯nÂ, Huj[ambn NnInÕbnÂ, tZhnþ tZh {]oXn¡mbn Bcm[\bnÂ, NÀaIm´n¡mbn kuµcykwhÀ[I DXv]¶§fnÂ, Ae¦mc¸qhmbn kzoIcWapdnbnÂþ aªfnsâ {]kàn GdpIbmWv.
Iq¬ Irjnbn t]mfnlukv tamUÂ
B[p\nI IrjncoXn D]tbmKn¨v Iq¬Irjnbn ]pXnb t\«hpw hnPbKmYbpambn ho«½. ]o¨n kztZin\n joe A\nÂIpamdmWv Iq¬Irjnbn A]qÀh t\«§Ä hnfshSp¡p¶Xv. ho«nse Iq¬]pcbn 450 {...
a«p¸mhp Irjn¡v ssPhhf¡q«pIÄ
sSdkv Irjnbpambn apt¶m«pt]mIpt¼mÄ Ghcpw D¶bn¡p¶ Hcp tNmZyamWv sNSnIÄ¡p \ÂtIWvS hf§Ä GsXms¡sb¶Xv. sSdkv Irjnbn ssPhhf§Ä D]tbmKn¡pIbmWv D¯aw. cmkhf§Ä D]tbmKn¡pt¼...
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