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\tc{µ tamZn ISp¯ \ne]msSSp¡p¶p

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DÅXp ]dªm / sI. tKm]meIrjvW³

]m¡nØmt\mSpw ssN\tbmSpw CSs]Spt¼mÄ C´y ISp¯ \ne]mSv kzoIcn¡Wsa¶p {][m\a{´n \tc{µ tamZn Xncn¨dnªp IgnªXmbn tXm¶p¶p. sXcsªSp¸pthZnbnse DPze hnPb¯n\ptijw kulrZ¯n\pw klIcW¯n\pambn Ab¡mÀ¡pt\tc At±lw ssI\o«n. F¶mÂ, A¸pd¯p\n¶v AXpWvSmbnÃ. adn¨v C´ybnte¡p `oIcsc Ibänbb¡p¶Xp ]m¡nØm³ XpScp¶psh¶pam{Xaà C´ysb Ipg¸¯nem¡p¶Xn\mbn ImjvaoÀ{]iv\w A´mcmjv{SthZnIfn D¶bn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. C´ybpambpÅ k¦oÀW {]iv\§fn ]m¡nØms\m¸w \n¡m\pÅ {]hWXbmWp ssN\ ImWn¡p¶Xv. AcpWmNÂ{]tZins\¡pdn¨pÅ BhÀ¯n¨pÅ AhImihmZ§Ä¡pw IrXyamb CSthfIfn AXnÀ¯nbn IS¶pIbdp¶Xn\pw ZiI§fpsS ]g¡apWvSv. F´mbmepw ]m ¡nØmsâbpw ssN\bpsSbpw C¯cw \S]SnIÄ temIs¯Ãmw Ct¸mÄ D]tbmKn¡p¶pWvSv.

]m¡nØmt\mSpw ssN\tbmSpapÅ _Ôw sa¨s¸Sp¯p¶Xn\p tamZn kÀ¡mÀ {iaw \S¯nsb¶Xv FÃmhcpw AwKoIcn¡p¶ hkvXpXbmWv. \tc{µ tamZnbpsS kXy{]XnÚm NS§nte¡p \hmkv jco^ns\ £Wn¨Xv, \hmkv jco^nsâ t]c¡p«nbpsS hnhml¨S§n ]s¦Sp¡p¶Xn\p ap³Iq«n \nÝbn¡msX emtlmdnse¯nbXv, \nch[nbmb DtZymKØXe NÀ¨IÄ¡p]pdta A´mcmjv{S kt½f\§fn {][m\a{´nXe NÀ¨ \S¯nbXpsaÃmw D`bI£n_Ôw iàam¡p¶Xn\pw ]ckv]c[mcW hfÀ¯p¶Xn\papÅ iàamb {ia§fmbncp¶p. F¶mÂ, ]ckv]chnizmk¯n\pÅ C¯cw kulmÀZkao]\§tfmSp `oIcm{IaW§fneqsSbmWp ]m¡nØm³ adp]Sn \ÂInbXv. ssN\tbmSv ASp¡m\pÅ tamZnbpsS {ia§Ä¡v A\pIqeamsbmcp {]XnIcWw t]mepw e`n¨nÃ. Cu kmlNcy¯n C´y³ XmXv]cy§Ä Bhiys¸Sp¶Xv ASnØm\aqey§Ä apdpsI¸nSn¨psImWvSp kao]\¯n amäw hcp¯Wsa¶mWv.

kao]amk§fnembn ]e {]iv\§fnepw \ne]mSp ISp¸n¡m³ tamZn kÀ¡mÀ XbmsdSp¯phcnIbmbncp¶p. DZmlcW¯n\p ]m¡nØm\pambn hntZiImcy sk{I«dnXe NÀ¨ {]Jym]n¨tijw, Ahkm\\nanjw AXp d±m¡nbXv. Imjvaocnse lpdnbXv t\Xm¡fpambn C´ybnse ]m¡nØm³ ssl¡½ojWÀ AÐpÄ _mknZv NÀ¨ \S¯nbXn\memWnXv. NÀ¨mtaibn lpdnb¯n\p Øm\ansöpw tamZn hyàam¡n. ImjvaocnIÄ¡nSbn hfsc¡pd¨pam{Xw thtcm«apÅhcmWp lpdnbXv F¶Xn\m AXn AZv`pXhpanÃ. _lpP\]n´pW h«¸qPyamsW¶ t_m[yapÅXn\m sXcsªSp¸pIfn `mK`m¡mhp¶XnÂ\n¶v Hgnªp\n¡p¶hcmWhÀ. hntZi t{kmXkpIfnÂ\n¶pÅ ]Ws¯ B{ibn¨p \ne\n¡p¶ ISemkv ]penIÄ am{XamWnhÀ. kzmX{´yZn\¯n sNt¦m«bpsS ]qapJ¯p\n¶p {][m\a{´n tamZn ]m¡nØm\nse a\pjymhImi ewL\§sf¡pdn¨pw _eqNnØm\nse cmjv{Sob IpX{´§sf¡pdn¨pw ]mIv A[n\nthi Imjvaocns\¡pdn¨pw ]dªXp taJebn C´y¡v D¯chmZnXz§fpw km[yXIfpw DsWvS¶ coXnbn ]m¡nØm\pÅ hyàamb ktµiambncp¶p.

C´ybpsS Dd¨ \ne]mSv ]m¡nØm³ {i²n¨psh¦nepw Bi¦s¸Sp¯p¶XmsW¶p ]ckyambn AhÀ ]dªnÃ. dmhÂ]nÞnbn \n¶pÅ `cW¯ns\Xntc Ing¡³ _wKmfnepWvSmb {]t£m`hpw AXphgn C´ybnte¡pWvSmb A`bmÀYnIfpsS Ips¯mgp¡ns\bpw ]m¡nØm³ HmÀan¨n«pWvSmIWw. A¶p {]iv\¯n C´y CSs]SpIbpw _w¥mtZinsâ cq]oIcW¯n\p \nÀ_ÔnXamhpIbmbncp¶p.

_eqNnØm\nse Akam[\w kw_Ôn¨p sNdnsbmcp hniZoIcWw ImelcWs¸«Xmbncn¡nÃ. 1876 emWp {_n«ojpImÀ _eqNnØm³ IogS¡p¶Xv. 1947 HmKÌv \men\v C´ybpsS KhÀWÀ P\d auWvSv _mä¬ {]`p, ]m¡nØmsâ \nbpà KhÀWÀ P\d apl½Zv Aen Pn¶, Ct¸mgs¯ _eqNnØm³ {]hniybpsS `mKamb IemXnse Jm³ F¶nhÀ tNÀ¶v Hcp {XnI£nIcmÀ H¸n«p. _eqNnØm\n ]m¡nØm\pÅ AhImiw Hgnhm¡n 1876 se \ne ]p\xØm]n¡p¶Xmbncp¶p IcmÀ. kmµÀ`nIsa¶p ]dbs« Jmsâ A`n`mjI\mbncp¶p apl½Zmen Pn¶. 1948 amÀ¨n Jm³ Idm¨nbnse¯nbt¸mÄ Pn¶ k½ÀZw sNe¯pIbpw {]tZiw ]m¡nØmt\mSp Iq«nt¨À¡p¶ Icmdn H¸phbv¡pIbpw sNbvXp. CtX¯pSÀ¶p _eqNnØm\n ]m¡nØms\Xntc kmbp[Iem]w s]m«n¸pds¸«p.

sN¼pw {]IrXnhmXIhpw DÄs¸sS {]IrXnhn`h§fpsS henb \nt£]apÅ, hnkvXrXnbn ]m¡nØmsâ 44 iXam\t¯mfw hcp¶ k¼¶{]tZiamb _eqNnØm³ cmPys¯ Gähpw henb kwØm\amWv. P\kwJybmIs« Xosc¡pdhpw. ssk\nIhpw km¼¯nIhpamb ImcW§fmÂ, ISente¡pÅ ]mXsb¶ ]cnKW\bn _eqNnØm\nse KzmUÀ XpdapJ¯nsâ hnIk\¯n\p 4.6 tImSn bpFkv tUmfÀ \nt£]n¡m³ ssN\ Icmdnsem¸n«ncn ¡pIbmWv. Cu ]²Xnhgn sN\bn \n¶p ]m¡nØm\nte¡p ssZÀLytadnb tdmUpw sdbnÂth sse\pw \nÀan¡pw. _eqNnØms\¡pdn¨pw ]mIv A[n\nthi Imjvaocns\¡pdn¨pw kzmX{´yZn\¯n {][m\a{´n tamZn \S¯nb ]cmaÀi¯n\p ssN\bnepw {]XnIcW§fpWvSmbn. _eqNnØm³ XÀ¡{]tZiamsW¶pw ]m¡nØm\v C¯csamcp Icmsdm¸nSm³ A[nImcansöpw ImWn¨v CcpcmPy§fpw X½nepWvSm¡nb Nne ]²XnItfmSv C´y CXn\Iw FXnÀ¸pbÀ¯n¡gnªp.

Ignª \qämWvSnsâ ]IpXnbn _eqNnØm\n iàamsbcp kzmX{´ykacw Act§dn. BImiamÀKapÅ t_mw_m{IaWw \S¯nbpw sajo³ K®pIfppÄs¸sS ]St¡m¸pIÄ D]tbmKn¨pw ]camh[n ssk\nIiànbn kacw ASn¨aÀ¯m³ ]m¡nØm³ {ian¨p. hym]Iamb Iq«s¡mebvs¡m¸w hwilXybpw Act§dnbXmbn Btcm]WapWvSmbncp¶p. ssk\nIcpsS AXn{Ia§Ä aqew A©phÀjwsImWvSv GItZiw 30 e£w _eqNnIÄ ]nd¶ `qan Dt]£n¨pt]mbXmbmWp IW¡pIÄ. bqtdm¸nte¡pw Atacn¡bnte¡pw KÄ^v taJebnte¡pamWv AhÀ \o§nbXv.

tamZnbpsS ]cmaÀi¯n\v GXm\pw BgvNIfmbn _eqNnIÄ AIagnª \µnbmWp {]ISn¸n¡p¶Xv. ]m¡nØmsâ AXn{Ia§fn {]Xntj[n¨pw kzmX{´yw Bhiys¸«pw PÀa\nbnepw bpsIbnepw _eqNnIfpsS {]Xntj[kacw Act§dn. _eqNnØm\nse A\nhmcyamb _lpP\{]t£m`w hensbmcp cmjv{Sob{]iv\amsW¶pam{Xaà ]mIv k¼ZvLS\sb AXp {]XnIqeambn _m[n¡pIbpw sN¿pw. taJebnse ssN\okv ]²XnIsfbpw _lpP\\o¡w XSks¸Sp¯pw, {]tXyIn¨p KzmUÀ XpdapJhnIk\hpw Ad_n¡Sente¡pÅ ]mXXpd¡epw.

ASp¯Ime¯v ]mIv A[n\nthi Imjvaocns\ ssN\ hntijn¸n¨Xp ]mIv `cW¯nepÅ Imjvaosc¶mWv. AXmIs« C´y¡pÅ Hcp ktµihpambncp¶p. tamZnbpsS kzmX{´yZn\ ktµi¯n\p tijw ]mIv CSs]SepItfmSv AXr]vXnbpÅ ]mIv A[n\nthi ImjvaocnIÄ C´y¡v A\pIqeamb ktµi§Ä \ÂIn. ]mIv ]uc·mÀ C´y¡p kulmÀZktµiw ssIamdpIsb¶Xv CÉmam_mZns\ Bi¦s¸Sp¯p¶XmWv. CXns\m¸amWp Xo{hhmZt¯mSpw ssk\nIkwhn[m\§tfmSpw B taJebn FXnÀ¸v iàamIp¶Xv. A[nIrXÀs¡Xntc t]mcmSp¶hÀ¡v C´y \ÂIp¶ X¯zm[njvTnX ]n´pWt]mepw ]m¡nØms\ Ipg¸¯nem¡pw.

]mIv \bcq]oIcW kanXnsb tamZnbpsS {]kwKw Ccp¯n¨n´n¸n¨p F¶Xp XÀ¡aä hkvXpXbmWv. ImjvaoÀ {]iv\¯n \ne]mSpIÄ hniZoIcn¡m³ ]m¡nØm³ {][m\a{´n \hmkv jco^v CXn\Iw 20 Fw]namsc {]tXyI ZqXcmbn sXcsªSp¯pIgnªp. C´ybpsS ]pXnb \ne]mSnse Bi¦ Adnbn¡p¶Xns\m¸w ASp¯amkw tNcp¶ bpF³ kt½f\¯n ImjvaoÀ {]iv\w D¶bn¡pt¼mgpÅ ]n´pWbpamWv ChÀ temIcmPy§tfmSp tXSm³ {ian¡p¶Xv. {][m\a{´n tamZnbpsS {]kwKs¯ ]n´pSÀ¶v C´y kzoIcn¡p¶ XpSÀ\S]SnIfpw {it²bamWv. 2017 P\phcn Ggn\p _mwKfqcn \S¡p¶ {]hmkn `mcXob Znhkn ]m¡nØm\n \n¶pÅ {]Xn\n[nIÄ¡p Nph¸p]chXm\n hncn¨pÅ kzoIcWamWp e`n¡pI.

Imjvaocnse \S]SnIfnepw \ne]mSpamäapWvSv. Imjvaocnse FÃm hn`mK§fpambn NÀ¨bv¡p XbmdmsW¶p tI{µw hyàam¡nbncn¡p¶p. s]Ãäv D]tbmKs¯¯pSÀ¶p knBÀ]nF^nt\mSv P\§Ä FXnÀ¸v {]ISn¸n¨t¸mÄ Cu D¯chmZnXz§Ä AXnÀ¯nc£mtk\bv¡p \ÂIn. tZiobXe¯n FÃm ]mÀ«nIfpambpw Bibhn\nabw \S¯nb tI{µw Imjvaocnse hnhn[ hn`mKw t\Xm¡sfbpw IWvSp. Imjvaocn ssk\y¯n\p t\XrXzw \ÂIp¶ e^v. P\d Un.Fk.v lqU FÃmhtcbpw NÀ¨bv¡p £Wn¨p. AtXkabw, C´y³ `cWLS\ A\pimkn¡p¶ N«¡qSn \n¶p am{Xta NÀ¨ \S¯qsh¶p hyàam¡pIbpw sNbvXp. Imjvaocn kam[m\w ]p\xØm]n¡m³ IÀi\ \S]Sn kzoIcn¡Wsa¶v, Ccp`mK¯pw \n¡p¶bmsf¶v Adnbs¸Sp¶ apJya{´n salv_p_ ap^vXntbmSp tI{µw iàambn Bhiys¸«p. AXsæn kÀ¡mcn\pÅ ]n´pW _nsP]n ]n³hen¡psa¶pw AXv AhcpsS {]XnÑmbsb _m[n¡psa¶pw HmÀan¸n¨p. kwØm\ kÀ¡mcn\p kz´w\nebn FÃm¯cw ]n ´pWbpw hmKvZm\w sN¿pIbpambncp¶p tI{µkÀ¡mÀ.

tamZn IÀ¡i\ne]mSnemWv. X{´]camb Hcp amätam IuieIcamb \o¡tam BtWmsb¶p hyàaÃ. kwØm\ \nbak`Ifnte¡p\S¡m³ t]mIp¶ sXcsªSp¸ns\ t\cnSm\pÅ X{´¯nsâ `mKamsW¶p NneÀ IcpXp¶p. ImcWw F´pXs¶bmbmepw \ne]mSv IÀ¡is¸Sp¯nbXneqsS ]m¡nØmsâ ]n´pWtbmsS \S¡p¶ `oIchmZs¯ {]Xntcm[n¡m³ C´y¡p ^e{]Zamsbmcp hgnbpsWvS¶p hyàam¡pIbmWp kÀ¡mÀ. ssN\bpw ]m¡nØm\pw X½n hfÀ¶phcp¶ X{´]camb kJys¯bpw CXphgn t\cnSmw. C¡mcy¯n tZiobXe¯n A`n{]mb ka\zbw cq]s¸«phcp¶Xnsâ kqN\IfpapWvSv.

kn]nsFbpsS IfnIÄ

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A\´]pcn/ ZznP³

tIcfcmjv{Sob¯n _p²n]qÀhamb Icp\o¡§Ä sImWvSp am{Xw ]nSn¨p\n¡p¶ cmjv{Sob {]Øm\amWp kn]nsF. Hcp _qÀjzm ]{Xw GsX¦nepw Hcp hnjb¯n Fs¶ {]iwkn¨m FhnsSbmWv F\n¡p ]ng¨Xv F¶p Rm³ cWvSph«w BtemNn¡mXncn¡nà F¶ AÀY¯n kwkmcn¨n«pÅ CSXv BNmcy\mb km£m C.Fw.Fkv. \¼qXncn¸mSp t]mepw kn]nsFbpsS \o¡§sf AXohPm{KXtbmsS ssIImcyw sNbvXncp¶p F¶Xp Ncn{Xw.

kn]nF½n\p Icp¯\pw X{´imenbpamb Hcp t\Xmhv DWvSmIp¶Xv F¡mehpw kn]nsF¡p `bamWv. C.sI. \mb\msct¸mepÅ Xami¡mcmsW¦n Ipg¸anÃ. ]nWdmbn hnPb³ ]mÀ«nbn Icp¯\mIp¶Xp IWvSv `bs¸Sp¶Xphsc hn.Fkv. ANypXm\µs\ kn]nsF¡mÀ¡p `bambncp¶p. kn]nsF¡msc¡pdn¨p hn.Fkv. ]dªn«pÅ hm¡pIÄ Ct¸mÄ Fw. kzcmPv ]dbp¶Xnepw “lo\ambncp¶p.

aäp ]mÀ«nIÄ CSXpap¶Wnbn hcp¶Xpw kn]nsF¡p `bamWv. AXnsâ DZmlcWamWv IcpWmIcsâ UnsFkntbmSp ImWn¨ NXn. 2001 A[nImc¯n h¶ F.sI BâWnbpsS tIm¬{Kkv kÀ¡mcns\ CÃmbva sN¿m\pÅ {ia¯n tIm¬{Kkv hn«v kz´w ]mÀ«nhsc DWvSm¡nb sI. IcpWmIc³ CSXp ap¶Wnbn F¯mXncp¶Xn\p ImcWw kn]nsFbpw hn.FkpamWv. F¶n«pw 2006se sXcsªSp¸n CSXp ap¶Wn Pbn¨p F¶Xp hmkvXhw. 2001 BâWn Bcw`n¨v 2006 D½³NmWvSn ]qÀ¯nbm¡nb `cWw ap¶Wnbn DWvSm¡nb Ass\Iyhpw AXpaqew DWvSmb iàntNmÀ¨bpw aqeamWv B hnPbw In«nbXv. F¶mÂ, A¶p IcpWmIcsâ ]mÀ«nsb CSXpap¶Wn IqsS Iq«nbncps¶¦n P\m[n]Xyap¶Wn ]n¶oSv A[nIc¯nse¯nÃmbncp¶p.

1964se ]mÀ«nbpsS ]nfÀ¸n\ptijw C¶phsc \S¶ sXcsªSp¸pIfnseÃmw X§fpsS AkvXnXzw \ne\nÀ¯p¶Xn\v F´p Ifnbpw Ifn¡m³ kn]nsF apXnÀ¶n«pWvSv. AXn\p at\mlcamb BZÀi ]cnthjw NmÀ¯m\pw km[n¡p¶p. tIcfw IWvS Gähpw \à `cWm[nImcn F¶v AhÀ hmgv¯p¶Xpw P\w IcpXp¶Xpamb kn. ANypXtat\m\mWp apÃs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«nse Pew, BPoh\m´Imet¯¡p Xangv\mSn\p hnäXv. tIcf¯n\p hnesbm¶pw In«nbnsænepw C¶pw kn]nsF¡p ^ew In«p¶pWvSv F¶v IcpXp¶hcpWvSv. PbefnX AhcpsS Hcp t\Xmhn\p cmPyk`m koäp t]mepw sImSp¯p! F¶n«pw ANypXtat\ms\ tIcfwIWvS Gähp anI¨ apJya{´nbmbn hmgv¯p¶p!

2006se hn.Fkv. ANypXm\µ³ a{´nk`bnse kn]nsF a{´namÀ AgnaXnbpsS ]pIbn izmkw ap«nbt¸mÄ Ahsc \ymboIcn¨psImWvSv ]mÀ«n sk{I«dn shfnbw ]dªXp ]cnNb¡pdhpsImWvSp ]änb A_²sa¶v. AXp asämcp hm¡n “t]mg·mÀ’ F¶v hn.Fkv Nn{XoIcn¨t¸mÄ `qI¼hpw DWvSm¡n. AgnaXn Btcm]Ww Dbcs¸«hcpsS Asæn At\zjW hnt[bcmbhcpsS ]mÀ«n Akv]riycmsW¦n 1969 kn]nsFbpsS kap¶X t\Xm¡fmb Sn.hn. tXmakpw, Fw.F³. tKmhnµ³ \mbcpw AgnaXn Btcm]W hnt[bcmbhctÃ? Ignª a{´nk`bnse cmtP{µ³ a{´nbpw _nt\mbv hnizw a{´nbpw hsc t]mepw AgnaXn Btcm]W hnt[bcmbntÃ? AXmWv kn]nsFbpsS BZÀi\ne]mSpIfpsS AhØ.

1979 C.Fw.Fkn\p ap¶n “A¨m..t]män’ ]dªv CSXpap¶Wnbn Ibdn¡qSnb kn]nsF X§fpsS ]Zhn Dd¸n¡m³ thWvSn am{XamWv Icp¡Ä \o¡nbXv. 2009 P\XmZfn\pw 2014 BÀFkv]n¡pw CSXp ap¶WnbnÂ\n¶p ]pd¯pt]mtIWvSnh¶t¸mÄ Iam¶v Hc£cw ]dbm³ ChÀ ss[cyw ImWn¨nà F¶Xp Xs¶bmWp kn]nsF Ifn¡p¶Xv AhÀ¡p thWvSn am{XamsW¶p Nn´n¸n¡p¶ \ymb§fn H¶v.

]nWdmbn t^m_nb

2006 A[nImc¯nse¯nb hn.Fkv kÀ¡mcnsâ `cWt¯mSpÅ P\hnImcw a\knem¡nb kn]nFw kwØm\ sk{I«dn ]nWdmbn hnPb³ 2009 se temIvk`m sXcsªSp¸nÂ, heXp]£w Ip¯Ibm¡nb apkvenw thm«pIfn Ipsdsb¦nepw tNmÀ¯nsbSp¡m³ aAZ\nbpambn DWvSm¡nb tcJbnÃm Icmdns\ s]mXpP\ka£w \män¨v CSXp]£s¯bpw A¸gpXneqsS ]nWdmbnsbbpw HXp¡p¶Xn\p t\XrXzw sImSp¯Xp kn]nsFbpsS Ifnbmbncp¶p. kn]nsF A¶p hnhmZw DWvSm¡nbXmIs« AhÀ XpSÀ¨bmbn aÕcn¨p tXm¡p¶ s]m¶m\n koän\pthWvSnbpw. s]m¶m\nbn aAZ\n \nÀtZin¡p¶ Hcp kzX{´s\ CSXpap¶Wn Øm\mÀYnbm¡m\pw A¸gpXneqsS AhnsSbpw tIcf¯nse aäp temIvk`m aÞe§fnepw aAZ\nbpsS BÄ¡mÀ¡pÅ thm«pIÄ X«nsbSp¡m\pw ]nWdmbn \o¡nb Icp¡Ä XIÀ¡pI am{Xaà ap¶WnbpsS hnPbkm[yXIÄ AXneqsS CÃmXm¡pIbpw sNbvXp kn]nsF.

aAZ\n F¶ hÀKob {]XoI¯nsâ ]mW·mcmbn kn]nFw F¶ hnImcw kaql¯n P\n¸n¡m\pw kn]nsF¡pw AhcpsS _e¯n Icp¡Ä \o¡nb hn.Fkn\pw km[n¨p. henb t]mcm«¯neqsS ]nWdmbn, kn]nsFsb HXp¡n s]m¶m\n koäv kz´am¡pIbpw aAZ\n \nÀtZin¨ lpssk³ cWvS¯mWnsb aÕcn¸n¡pIbpw sNbvsX¦nepw At¸mtg¡pw \ZnbneqsS Gsd shÅw HgpInt¸mbncp¶p. CSXpap¶Wn \news]m¯n. 2004se temIvk`m sXcsªSp¸n 18 koäv t\Snb CSXpap¶Wn¡v A¡pdn In«nbXp \mep koäv. B hnhmZ¯n kn]nsF¡v 2004 e`n¨ aq¶p koäpw CÃmXmbn F¶Xp kXyw. tXmäpsXm¸nbn«t¸mÄ aAZ\nsbbpw hÀKobXsbbpw Hs¡ Ipäw]dªp P\§fpsS I®n s]mSnhnXdpIbmbn.

2014se¯nbt¸mtg¡pw kn]nsF temIvk`m koäv I¨hSw \S¯n F¶ hnhmZw sImgp¯p. Xn cph\´]pc¯v kn]nsF \nÀ¯nb Øm\mÀYn ]mÀ«n{]hÀ¯I\mbncp¶nsöpw ]Ww sImSp¯v koäv hm§pIbmbncp¶p F¶pw FÃmw Btcm]Ww DbÀ¶p. AXnsâ t]cn kn]nsFbnse Nne XeIÄ DcpfpIbpw sNbvXp. ]mÀ«n Xbmdm¡nb At\zjW dnt¸mÀ«v ]t£ t]meokv ]nSn¡psa¶mbt¸mÄ \in¸n¨p. GXmbmepw temIvk`m aÕc¡f¯n kn]nsFbpsS Øm\mÀYn aq¶ma\mbn.

2014 se \nbak`m sXcsªSp¸n hn.Fkv BIWw CSXpap¶WnbpsS t\Xmhv F¶v \nÀtZin¨psImWvSv ]nWdmbnsb HXp¡m³ \S¯nb \o¡w ]t£ hnPbn¨nÃ.

C.Fw.Fkv

IayqWnÌv ]mÀ«n ]nfÀ¶Xn\ptijw \S¶ 1965 se \nbak`m sXcsªSp¸n ]ckv]cw CÃmXm¡n anSp¡p ImWn¡m³ CSXpþheXp IayqWnÌv ]mÀ«nIÄ aÕcn¨p. A¶p kn]nsF¡p Iq«pImsc In«mXncn¡m³ C.Fw.Fkv \S¯nb X{´]camb \o¡s¯¡pdn¨v A¡mes¯ tkmjyenÌv ]mÀ«n t\Xmhmbncp¶ ]n. hnizw`c³ FgpXnbn«pWvSv. 1965 amÀ¨v \men\mbncp¶p thms«Sp¸v. A¶v 133 \nbak`m aÞe§fmWv DWvSmbncp¶Xv. tIm¬{Kkv 133epw Häbv¡p aÕcn¨p 33.58 iXam\w thms«msS 36 koäv t\Sn. ]pXpXmbn DWvSmb tIcf tIm¬{Kkv 54 koän aÕcn¨v 12.58 iXam\w thmt«msS 23 koäv t\Sn. ]nfÀ¸n\ptijw X§fmWv bYmÀY IayqWnÌpImÀ F¶p amÀIvknÌvImcpw kn]nsF¡mcpw H¶pt]mse AhImis¸s«¦nepw ap¶Wnbmbn aÕcn¡m\mbncp¶p kn]nsFbpsS \o¡w.

tkmjyenÌv ]mÀ«n, apkvenw eoKv F¶nhcpambpw kn]nsFbpambpw kn]nFw GXmWvSv \o¡pt]m¡nse¯nbXmWv. Ahkm\h« NÀ¨IÄ¡mbn t\Xm¡Ä XeØm\¯v FwFÂF tlmÌen IqSn. CFwFkv a\x]qÀhw NÀ¨ sshIn¸n¨p. ap¶Wn DWvSm¡m\mhm¯hn[w NÀ¨ GI]£obambn Ahkm\n¸n¨p. A§s\ kn]nsF ]mtS Nn{X¯n\p ]pd¯mbn. kn]nFw, tkmjyenÌv ]mÀ«ntbmSpw apkvenw eoKnt\mSpw N§m¯¯n aÕcn¨p. ^ew h¶t¸mÄ 73 koän am{Xw aÕcn¨ kn]nFw 19.88 iXam\w thmt«msS 40 koäv t\Sn. 29 koän aÕcn¨ tkmjyenÌv ]mÀ«n 13 koäv t\Sn. 16 koän aÕcn¨ eoKv 3.83 iXam\w thmt«msS Bdp koäv t\Sn. 78 koän Häb¡v aÕcn¨ kn]nsF¡p In«nbXv 8.10 iXam\w thm«pw aq¶p koäpw. A¶v A¼Xntesd koäpIfn X§Ä cWvSmw Øm\¯mbncp¶p F¶Xmbncp¶p kn]nsFbpsS AhImihmZw. FXncmfn Iagv¯nbSn¨p apXpI¯p Ibdn Ccn¡pt¼mgpw ASnbnemWv InS¡p¶sX¦nepw Xsâ ssIbmWp apIfn F¶ AhImihmZw t]mse H¶v.

kn]nsF Ifn¡p¶p

1965se sXcsªSpt¸msS X§fmWv bYmÀY P\]n´pWbpÅ IayqWnÌv ]mÀ«n F¶v Dd¸n¨ C.Fw.Fkv 1967 CSXpap¶Wnbn kn]nsF¡pw CSwsImSp¯p. kn]nFw 52 koän Pbn¨t¸mÄ kn]nsF¡v 22 koäpWvSmbn. AhnSncp¶p ]t£ kn]nsF Ifn¨p. eoKns\bpw BÀFkv]nsbbpw IqsS \nÀ¯n. AhÀ¡pWvSmbncp¶ 39 FwFÂFamcpw {]Xn]£¯pWvSmbncp¶ tIm¬{Kknsâ H¼Xpw tIcf tIm¬{Kknsâ A©pw tkmjyenÌv ]mÀ«nbn AJnte´ym Xe¯n DWvSmb ]nfÀ¸p aqew kn]nsF ap¶Wn¡p In«nb 13 t]cpw tNÀ¯v `qcn]£w DWvSm¡n. a{´nk`bv¡p cq]w sImSp¯p. tIm¬{Kkv ]n´pWtbmsS `cn¡nsöp ]dªv hnam\w Cd§nb ANypXtat\ms\t¸mse “henb’ BÄ IcpWmIc³ sImSp¯ ISemkpw hm§n apJya{´nbmbn. AXmWv kn]nsFbpsS {]Jym]\§fpsS Im¼v!

133 AwK \nbak`bn kn]nsF ap¶Wn¡pWvSm bncp¶Xv 66 AwK§Ä. Cu X«n¡q«v a{´nk` D WvSm¡nbXv A[nImcs¡mXnsImWvSv AsömWv kn]nsF Ct¸mgpw ]dbp¶Xv! amäp ]mÀ«nItfm hyànItfm sN¿pt¼mÄ A[nImcs¡mXn sIm WvSpw kn]nsF sN¿pt¼mÄ BZÀiw sImWvSpw!

ANypXtat\m³

1969 \hw_À H¶n\v A[nImc¯ntednb ANypXtat\m\p ]t£ apt¶m«p t]mIm\mbnÃ. hfsc X{´]qÀhamWv ANypXtamt\m³ Icp¡Ä \o¡nbXv. tkmjyenÌpImcpsS ]nW¡w aqew XmsghoWp, hoWnà F¶ a«nemWv `cWw \o§nbXv. izmkw hnSm³ thWvSn 1970 amÀ¨v 18\v k`bn At±l¯n\v hnizmk {]tabw AhXcn¸nt¡WvSn h¶p. tIcf\nbak`bpsS Ncn{X¯nse BZys¯ hnizmk {]tabw k` amÀ¨v 20\v NÀ¨ sNbvXp. 58s\Xntc 66 thms«msS k` {]tabw ]mkm¡n. A©wK§Ä \njv]£X ]men¨p. F¶n«pw 1970 HmKÌv H¶n\p cmPnhbvt¡WvSnh¶p. 1970 \S¶ sXcsªSp¸n B ap¶Wn t\cnb `qcn]£¯n hnPbn¨p.

B sXcsªSp¸n aÕcn¨ koäpIfpsS F®¯n kn]nsF \ne sa¨s¸Sp¯n. 29 koän aÕcn¨p. F¶mÂ, Pbn¡m\mbXv 16 koän am{Xw. F¶n«pw ANypXtat\m\p apJya{´n Øm\w t\Sm³ kn]nsF¡mbn. \nbak`m I£nbn 30 AwK§fpWvSmbncp¶ tIm¬{Kknsâ HuZmcy¯nembncp¶p AXv. B sXcsªSp¸n 31 koän Häbv¡p aÕcn¨ tIcf tIm¬{Kkv 12 CS¯p Pbn¨p. Ccpap¶Wnbnepw CÃmsX AhÀ {]hÀ¯n¨p. 1971 temIvk`m sXcsªSp¸mbt¸mtg¡p tIcf tIm¬{Kkns\ hnfn¨pIq«n. tIcfm tIm¬{KkpIqSn DÄs¸« B ap¶Wn 19 16 koänepw Pbn¨p. tIcf tIm¬{Kkn\pw kn]nsF¡pw A¶p In«nbXv aq¶v koäp hoXw.

ASnb´cmhØbv¡p tijw 1977  \S¶ sXcsªSp¸n ]t£, kn]nsF¡p aÕcn¡p¶Xn\p In«nb koäpIfpsS F®w Ipdªp. 140 27 koämWv In«nbXv. ASnb´cmhØbpsS im]w t]dn h¶ B \nbak`bnse kÀ¡mcpIsfÃmw A¸mbpkp¡fmbn. BZys¯ apJya{´n IcpWmIc³ 1977 amÀ¨v 25 apX G{]n 25 hsc am{Xw `cn¨p. XpSÀ¶p h¶ BâWn kÀ¡mÀ 1977 G{]n 27 apX 1978 HIvtSm_À 27 hsc `cn¨p XoÀ¶p. hoWvSpw apJya´n]Zw kn]nsF X«nsbSp¯p. 1978 HIvtSm_À 29 \v A[nImctaä ]n.sI. hmkptZh³ \mbÀ a{´nk` 1979 HIvtSm_À Ggn\p cmPnh¨p.

ap¶Wnbnse hg¡pw ]nfÀ¸pw FÃmw aqew aqt¶m«pt]mIm\mImsX h¶t¸mgmWp ]n.sI.hn cmPnh¨Xv F¦nepw IayqWnÌv sFIy¯n\pthWvSn F¶mbncp¶p t]cv. tIm¬{Kknse ]nfÀ¸ns\ XpSÀ¶v BZÀi¡mc\mb BâWnbpsS IqsS \n¶hscÃmw CµncbpsS IqSmc¯nte¡v HgpIn. tIcf tIm¬{Kkn amWnbpw tPmk^pw X½nepw ]nfÀ¶p. amWnbpsS IqsS 12 Dw tPmk^nsâ IqsS F«pw FwFÂFamÀ \nc¶p. 1977\v tijw ImkÀtKmUv, Xncph\´]pcw, Xeticn, XncphÃ, ]md ime F¶o Akw»n aÞe§fn \S¶ D]sXcsªSp¸pIfnseÃmw `cWI£n tXmäp.

XSn c£n¡m³ NmSn

1969 IqsS \n¶hsc Bscbpw t\m¡msX kn]nsF, kn]nFw IqSmcw tXSnsb¯n. C.Fw.Fkv £ FgpXn¨p. ap¶Wn NÀ¨IÄ ¢o³ tÉän thWw. AXmbXp knänwKv koäv AhÀ¡v F¶ GÀ¸mSnÃ. Hmtcm koäpw t\m¡n BÀ¡v F¶v \nÝbn¡mw. eoKns\ Hcp Xc¯nepw AhnsS tNÀ¡nsöv At±lw ]dªp. AhÀ¡p IqsS AJnte´ym eoKv DWvSmbncp¶p. F¶mÂ, Cu \ymbw tIcf tIm¬{Kknsâ Imcy¯n ]peÀ¯nbnÃ. ]nÅ {Kq¸v DWvSmbn«pw ]t£ amWnsb FSp¯p. A§s\ kn]nsF¡p In«nbXv 22 koäv. ]nfÀ¶p sN¶ amWn¡p In«nbXv 17 koäpw. 1977 CSXpap¶Wn 15 koäp sImSp¯ ]nÅ¡v 1979 sImSp¯Xv cWvSp koäv. AXpw hm§n At±lw AhnsS \n¶p.

A¶v 140 koäv hn`Pn¨Xv C§s\þkn]nFw 50, BâWn 30, kn]nsF 22, amWn 17, eoKv 11, BÀFkv]n F«v, ]nÅ cWvSv. A¶pWvSmbncp¶ BâWn, amWn F¶nhcpw BÀFkv]nbpw ]n¶oSp sN¶ P\Xmbpw tPmk^pw FÃmw `mKnIambn ap¶WnhnSpIbpw BâWnbpsS IqsS DWvSmbncp¶hÀ tIm¬{KkvþFkv F¶ t]cn AhnsS sNdnb ]mÀ«n BhpIbpw sNbvXn«pw kn]nsFbpsS 22 koäv 27 BbtX DÅp. kn]nF½nsâ 50 koäv 84 Bbn.

AXnPoh\w A]IS¯nemhpIbmsW¶v kn]nsFsb BcmWp ]Tn¸nt¡WvSXv? AXn\v BZÀihpw Icp¡fpw Hs¡ \o¡Ww. AXmWv AhÀ sN¿p¶Xv.

P\m[n]Xy ap¶Wn

AXnPoh\¯n\pthWvSn F´p sN¿Wsa¶v Adnbm¯ \nebnemWv P\m[n]Xy ap¶Wn. eoKv H¶pw anWvSp¶nÃ. tIcf tIm¬{Kkv tP¡_v am{Xw amWnsb Xncn¨psImWvSphcWsa¶p hmbebv¡p¶pWvSv. AXn\pÅ hne BÀ¡mWdnbm¯Xv? BÀFkv]n, P\XmZÄ, knFw]n XpS§nbhÀ A_²¯nemtbm F¶p kwibn¡p¶p.

BâWnbpsS hgn

tIm¬{Kkv t\Xmhv F.sI. BâWn ]dbp¶Xv Ct¸mgpÅhÀ FÃmw amdWsa¶mWv. 2016epw cmPyk`bnte¡v sXcsªSp¡s¸Spt¼mÄ At±l¯n\v AXp tXm¶nbnÃ! 2021 hsc At±lw AhnSpWvSmhpw.

tIm¬{Kkn\v C\n Häbv¡v tIcf¯nÂ\n¶v Hcp Øm\mÀYnsb cmPyk`bn F¯n¡m\mhnÃ. eoKnsâ klmbw In«nbmepw tamiamWp ØnXn. aäp kwØm\§fnepw ØnXn tamiw. cmlp F{X hnjan¨mWp NnZw_cs¯ cmPyk`bn F¯n¨Xv! At¸mÄ C\n \nÀ¯mw F¶mhpw ]cn]mSn. At¸mÄ Xm\S¡apÅhÀ ]n¶Wnbnte¡p amdWw F¶v At±lw \nÀtZin¡p¶p. At±lw amdp¶p F¶p ]dªm AcptX F¶p \nÀ_Ôn¡m³ BfpWvSmtb¡mw. ]t£ aäpÅhÀt¡m?

{Kq¸n\p thWvSn D½³ NmWvSnbpw AXnkmlk§Ä¡p apXncmw. BâWnbpsS hm¡pIÄ¡v Ct¸mÄ ]gb hne BâWn`àÀ¡nSbnepw CÃ. Xsâ kz´amb kp[oc³ amdWsa¦n FÃmhcpw amds« F¶v BâWn sImXn¡p¶Xpt]mse tXm¶pw. GXmbmepw BâWn ]dªsXm¶pw AwKoIcn¡m³ Hcp tIm¬{KkpImc\pw XbmdmhnÃ. _nsP]n ImWn¡p¶Xp t]mse 75 Ignªhsc amäpw F¶ \ne]msSSp¡m³ tIm¬{Kkn\mhnÃ.

hml\m]IS \jvS]cnlmcw HSphn \oXn \S¸mIp¶p

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AUz. tSmw tXmakv ]q¨menÂ

hml\m]IS \jvS]cnlmcw kw_Ôn¨v 2010 Unkw_dn\p ap¼v kwØm\sam«msI \S¸nemt¡WvSnbncp¶ hn[n kwØm\s¯ ]pXnb t]meokv ta[mhn temIv\mYv s_lvd \S¸m¡pIbmWv. hml\m]IS§fnÂs¸«p ]cn¡p ]äp¶hÀ¡pw acWaSbp¶hcpsS B{inXÀ¡pw _p²nap«v IqSmsXbpw ImeXmakanÃmsXbpw \jvS]cnlmcw In«Wsa¶mWp kp{]owtImSXn hn[nbnse ]cmaÀiw. Cu hn[n \S¸nem¡p¶tXmsS AÀlcmb FÃmhÀ¡pw ImeXmakanÃmsX \jvS]cnlmc XpI e`n¡pw. tamt«mÀ shln¡nÄkv BÎv 158(6)Dw 166(4)Dw IÀi\ambn \S¸nem¡m³ kp{]owtImSXn \nÀtZin¨p.

C´ybnse ]ctam¶X \oXn]oTamb kp{]owtImSXnbpsS Cu hn[n \S¸m¡n¡n«m³ Im¯ncnt¡WvSnh¶Xv Bdp hÀjw. F¶n«pw \S¸mbXp `mKnIambn am{Xw. AXpw kwØm\ t]meokv ta [mhnamcpsS ASnb´c CSs]Sens\¯pSÀ¶v.

hml\m]IS§fnÂs¸«p ]cn¡p ]äp¶hÀ¡pw acn¡p¶hcpsS B{inXÀ¡pw Gsd {]tbmP\w sN¿p¶ kp{]owtImSXn hn[n 2009 Ahkm\t¯msSbmWv DWvSmbXv. Pbv{]Imipw \mjW C³jzd³kv I¼\nbpw X½nepÅ tIknemWv Gsd Pt\m]Imc{]Zamb Cu hn[n. {]mtbmKnI _p²nap«pIÄ IW¡nseSp¯v Hmtcm kwØm\¯pw aq¶p L«ambmWp hn[n \S¸m¡m³ \njvIÀjn¨ncp¶Xv. 2010 G{]n Ahkm\t¯msS XeØm\¯pw HmKÌv Ahkm\t¯msS PnÃm BØm\¯pw Unkw_À Ahkm\t¯msS kwØm\s¯ apgph³ t]meokv tÌj\pIfnepw ss{S_yqWepIfnepw hn[n \S¸m¡m\mbncp¶p \nÀtZiw.

CXp tIcf¯nse t]meokv tÌj\pIfn \S¸nem¡nbn«nsöp ImWn¨p UnPn]n¡p In«nb ]cmXnsb¯pSÀ¶v 23.09.2015þ UnPn]n \ÂInb ASnb´c \nÀtZis¯ XpSÀ¶mWp \S¸m¡n XpS§nbXv. tIcf¯nse tamt«mÀ BIvknUâv s¢bnwkv ss{S_yqWepIfpw Cu hn[n \S¸nem¡m³ thWvS{X XmXv]cyw Im«p¶nà F¶ hnhcw sslt¡mSXn cPnkv{SmdpsS {i²bnÂs¸Sp¯n ]cmXn \ÂInbXns\¯pSÀ¶p sslt¡mSXnbpw CXpkw_Ôn¨p _Ôs¸« ss{S_yqWepIÄ¡p IÀi\ \nÀtZiw \ÂIn.

kp{]owtImSXnbpsS Cu hn[n \S¸nemt¡WvS D¯chmZnXzw kwØm\ t]meokn UnPn]n¡mWv. \S¸nem¡nbn«ptWvSm F¶p ]cntim[\ \St¯WvSXv td©v sFPnamcpw.

Cu hn[nb\pkcn¨v, hml\m]IS tIkpIÄ t]meokv cPnÌÀ sNbvXm 30 Znhk¯n\Iw BIvknUâv C³^Àtaj³ dnt¸mÀ«v A[nImc ]cn[nbnÂs¸« tamt«mÀ BIvknUâv s¢bnwkv ss{S_yqWen ^b sN¿Ww. sk³{S tamt«mÀ shln¡nÄkv dqÄkv 1989 ]dbp¶ t^mw \¼À 54 thWw ^b sN¿m³. AXn hml\m]IS¯nÂs¸«p ]cn¡p ]änb BfpsS {]mbw, acWaSª tIkpIfnse B{inXcpsS t]cv, hbkv, ]cn¡p ]änb Bfnsâ hcpam\w F¶nh DWvSmIWw. CXnsâ H¸w F^vsFBdnsâ km£ys¸Sp¯nb tIm¸n, sskäv ¹m³, alkÀ, IrXyØes¯ t^mt«m{Km^pIÄ, ss{UhdpsS ss{UhnwKv ssek³kv, C³jzd³kv kÀ«n^n¡äv, ^näv\kv kÀ«n^n¡äv, hqWvSv kÀ«n^n¡äv, acWaSª tIkpIfn t]mÌvtamÀ«w dnt¸mÀ«v, ]cn¡v ]änb Bfnsâ t]cpw ]qÀWamb hnemkhpw, acWaSª tIkpIfn B{inXcpsS t]cv, hnemkw F¶nhbpw DWvSmbncn¡Ww. H¸w Xs¶ dnt¸mÀ«nsâbpw _Ôs¸« tcJIfpsSbpw tIm¸n C³jzd³kv I¼\n¡pw \ÂIWw.

tIknsâ BZys¯ lnbdnwKv XobXn t]meokv Xs¶ ]cn¡p]änb Bfns\bpw A]IS¯n\p tlXphmb hml\¯nsâ ss{UhÀ, DSaس, C³jzd³kv I¼\n F¶nhscbpw Adnbn¡Ww. acWaSª tIkpIfn B{inXsc Adnbn¡Ww. ss{S_yqW \nÀtZin¨m AhcpsS km¶n[yw t]meokv Dd¸m¡pIbpw thWw.

tamt«mÀ shln¡nÄkv BÎv skIvj³ 158(6) {]Imcw t]meokv ^b sN¿p¶ dnt¸mÀ«v skIvj³ 166 (4) {]ImcapÅ \jvS]cnlmc lÀPnbmbn ss{S_yqW ]cnKWn¡Ww. hml\m]IS¯n ]cn¡p ]änbhtcm acWaSªhcpsS B{inXtcm \jvS]cnlmc lÀPn ^b sN¿m³ Im¯p\n¡cpXv. CXn\pthWvSn Hmtcm ss{S_yqWenepw {]tXyI cPnÌÀ kq£n¡Ww. sslt¡mSXn cPnkv{SmÀ P\d BWv Hmtcm kwØm\¯pw CXn\pthWvS ap³ssI FSp¯v ss{S_yqWen\p thWvS klmbw sNt¿WvSXv. BZys¯ lnbdnwKn\p I£n lmPcmIp¶tXmsS t]meokv ^b sNbvX dnt¸mÀ«v bYmÀY \jvS]cnlmc lÀPnbmbn amdpw. t]meokv ^b sN¿p¶Xn\p ap¼v I£n \jvS]cnlmc lÀPn ^b sNbvXn«psWvS¦n t]meokv ^b sNbvXXv, t\cn«v ^b sNbvX \jvS]cnlmc lÀPntbmSp tNÀ¡pw. A]ISw kw_Ôn¨v C³jzd³kv I¼\n¡p Imcyamb XÀ¡w Csæn AZme¯nte¡p tIkv d^À sN¿pItbm k½dn {Sb apJm´ncw tIkv XoÀ¸m¡pItbm sN¿pw. Bdp amk¯n\pÅn tIkv XoÀ¸m¡Wsa¶pw kp{]owtImSXn \njvIÀjn¨n«pWvSv. Xocpam\amIp¶ tIkpIfn 30 Znhk¯n\Iw C³jzd³kv I¼\n \jvS]cnlmc XpI \ÂIWw. km[mcW knhn tIkv t]mse \jS]cnlmc lÀPnIÄ \o«ns¡mWvSpt]m Ip¶Xv Hgnhm¡Wsa¶pw \nÀtZin¨n«pWvSv.

XÀ¡anÃm¯ tIkpIfn temIv AZme¯nsâ skänÂsaânt\m ss{S_yqWensâ hn[nt¡m Im¯p\n¡msX acWaSªhcpsS B{inXÀ¡v C³jzd³kv I¼\nIÄ kp{]owtImSXnbpsS hn[nbn ]dbp¶ Ìm³UmÀUv t^mÀape h¨pÅ \jvS]cnlmcw \ÂIWw. ]cn¡p ]änb tIkpIfn NnInÕms¨ehv \ÂIWw. saUn¡Â C³jzd³kv t]mfnknIÄ FSp¯m NnInÕs¨ehpIÄ hln¡p¶Xpt]mse hml\m]IS¯nÂs¸«hcpsS NnInÕs¨ehv C³jzd³kv I¼\nIÄ hln¡m¯Xn\v Hcp ImcWhpw ImWp¶nà F¶pw kp{]owtImSXn ]dbp¶p.

hntZicmPy§fn ]ebnS¯pw hml\m]ISw kw`hn¨m C³jzd³kv I¼\nIÄ DS\Sn At\zjWw \S¯n A]IS¯nÂs¸«p ]cn¡p ]änbhÀ¡p \jvS]cnlmc¯pI \ÂIpw. Npcp¡ambn s¢bnw \ntj[n¡pItbm, XpI Ipdªpt]mIpItbm sN¿p¶ kµÀ`¯n am{Xta AhÀ tImSXnsb kao]n¡mdpÅq.

hml\m]IS¯nÂs¸Sp¶hcn \jvS]cnlmc XpI In«m¯ hn`mK¯nsâ Imcyhpw tImSXn ]cmaÀin¡p¶p.

1. AÚmX hml\w CSn¨hÀ.

2. C³jzd³kv CÃm¯ hml\w aqew A]IS¯nÂs¸«hÀ.

3. tXÀUv ]mÀ«n C³jzd³kv am{XapÅ kzImcy hml\¯n bm{X sNbvXhcpw Nc¡phWvSnIfnse bm{X¡mcpw.

Chcn AÚmXhml\w X«n KpcpXc ]cn¡v ]änbhÀ¡pw acn¨hÀ¡pw hfsc sNdnb Hcp XpI skmtejyw kvIoanÂ\n¶p sImSp¡p¶XÃmsX bYmÀY \jvS]cnlmcw e`n¡p¶nÃ. aäp cWvSp tIkpIfnepw C³jzd³kv I¼\n \jvS]cnlmc ¯pI \ÂInÃ. hml\m]IS§fnÂs¸«p KpcpXcambn ]cn¡p ]äp¶ ]eÀ¡pw km¼¯nI _p²nap«v aqew \nehmcapÅ NnInÕ e`n¡p¶nÃ. C¡mcyhpw tImSXn ]cmaÀin¡p¶p.

\nÀ`mKyhimÂ, t]meokpw ss{S_yqWepIfpw Cu hyhØ \S¸nem¡m³ thWvS Hcp {iahpw \S¯p¶nà CXp thWvScoXnbn \S¸nembm hml\m]IS§fnÂs¸«p ]cn¡p ]äp¶hÀ¡pw acn¡p¶hcpsS B{inXÀ¡pw bmsXmcphn[ _p²nap«pw IqSmsX GXm\pw amk§Ä¡pÅn \jvS]cnlmcXpI e`n¡psa¶p kp{]owtImSXn ]dbp¶p.

kÀ¡mcn\p ap¼msIbpw kp{]owtImSXn Nne \nÀtZi§Ä h¨n«pWvSv. hml\m]IS§fnÂs¸Sp¶ FÃmhÀ¡pw \jvS]cnlmcw e`n¡psa¶v Dd¸phcp¯Ww. A]IS¯nÂs¸Sp¶ hml\¯nsâ DSaس HgnsI ]cn¡p ]änb FÃmhscbpw tXÀUv ]mÀ«nbmbn IW¡m¡Ww. AÚmX hml\w X«nb tIkpIfn \jvS]cnlmc XpI DbÀ¯Ww. ]cn¡p ]äp¶hsc ip{iqjn¡m³ t{Smam skâdpIfpw {]Ya ip{iqj skâdpIfpw [mcmfw Øm]n¡Ww. tdmUv tk^vän _yqtdm Øm]nt¡WvSXnsâ BhiyIXbpw tImSXn FSp¯p]dbp¶p. C³jzd³kv CÃm¯ hml\w A ]IS¯nÂs¸«m hml\ DSa \jvS]cnlmc¯pI skIyqcnänbmbn \ÂInbm am{Xta hml\w hn«p \ÂImhq F¶p \njvIÀjn¡p¶p.

tIcf¯nÂ, kwØm\ t]meokv ap³ ta[mhn Sn.]n. sk³Ipamdn\p In«nb ]cmXnbpsS ASnØm\¯n At±lw ap³ssIsbSp¯mWv C¡mcy§Ä \S¸nem¡n¯pS§nbXv. AXn\pap¼v 2/2008 F¶ kÀ¡peÀ DWvSmbncps¶¦nepw CXp \S¸nembncp¶nÃ. sXmSp]pg tamt«mÀ BIvknUâv s¢bnwkv ss{S_yqW PUvPn ]n. am[h³ C¡mcy¯n {]tXyI XmXv]cysaSp¯v PnÃbnse Fkv]n, UnsshFkv]namÀ FFkv]n, FkvF¨vHamÀ F¶nhÀ¡p \nÀtZiw \ÂInbXns\¯pSÀ¶v CSp¡n PnÃbnse an¡hmdpw t]meokv tÌj\pIfnepw ss{S_yqWenepw CXp ]qÀWambpw \S¸nembn.

AXn\pthWvSn {]tXyI cPnÌdpw ss{S_yqWen kq£n¡p¶pWvSv. Ct¸mgs¯ ss{S_yqW PUvPn sI.BÀ. a[pIpamdpw C¡mcy¯n {]tXyI XmXv]cyw ImWn¡p¶p. F¶mÂ, sslt¡mSXnbpsS \nÀtZiw DsWvS¦nepw tIcf¯nse ]e tamt«mÀ BIvknUâv s¢bnwkv ss{S_yqWepIfpw Ct¸mgpw CXp icnbmb hn[¯n \S¸nem¡p¶nà F¶v Bt£]apWvSv.

C´ybn UÂlnbnemWv Cu hn[n hnPbIcambn BZyw \S¸nem¡nbXv. Ct¸mÄ tIcf¯n \S¸nem¡nhcp¶p. hn[n \S¸mhp¶tXmsS hml\m]IS¯n ]cn¡p ]äp¶hÀ ¡pw acWaSbp¶hcpsS B{inXÀ¡pw ImeXmakanÃmsX \jvS]cnlmc¯pI e`n¡pw. tIkv ^b sN¿p¶Xn\p thWvSnhcp¶ tImÀ«v ^okv, eoK s_\^näv ^WvSv, ^benwKv sNehpIÄ F¶nh HgnhmIpw. {]amW§fpw kwLSn¸nt¡WvSnhcnÃ. FXnÀI£nIsfbpw ]cn¡p ]änb Bfns\bpw tImSXnbnse BZy lnbdnwKv XobXn Adnbnt¡WvS NpaXebpw t]meokn\mWv.

IqSmsX, hml\m]IS§fn s]Sp¶hÀ¡v ASnb´c NnInÕm klmbhpw Krl\mY³ acn¨m Ip«nIfpsS hnZym`ymk¯n\pÅ klmbhpw e`n¡p¶Xn\mbn tIcf tamt«mÀ shln¡nÄ BIvknUâv hnÎnwkv FaÀP³kn dneo^v ^WvSv _n 2016 kwØm\¯p \S¸m¡Wsa¶v Bhiys¸«p kwØm\ KXmKX hIp¸v a{´n¡v \ÂInb At]£bpw ]cnKW\bnemWv. hml\m]IS§fnÂs¸«p ]cn¡v ]äp¶hÀ¡v bYmkabw hnZKv[ NnInÕ e`yam¡nbm acWkwJy Hcp ]cn[n hsc Ipdbv¡m³ Ignbpw.

hml\m]IS§fnÂs¸Sp¶ Bbnc¡W¡n\p \ncmew_À¡p hfsctbsd Bizmkw \ÂIp¶ Cu _n \S¸m¡m³ thWvS \o¡w kwØm\ kÀ¡mcnsâ `mK¯p\n¶v DWvSmIpsa¶p {]Xo£n¡mw.

hnZym`ymks¯ ImhnhXvIcn¡p¶ IcSv tZiob hnZym`ymk \bw

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{]^. tdmWn sI. t__n

C´ybnse s]mXphnZym`ymk, D¶X hnZym`ymk taJeIfn kaqeamb amä§Ä \nÀtZin¡p¶ tZiob hnZym`ymk \bwþ2016 sâ IcSv tI{µ am\h hn`htijn a{´mebw {]kn²oIcn¨p. \tc{µ tamZn kÀ¡mÀ A[nImc¯n h¶Xn\ptijw 2015 emWv ap³ Im_n\äv sk{I«dn Sn.Fkv.BÀ. kp{_ÒWy¯nsâ t\XrXz¯n ]pXnb tZiob hnZym`ymk \bw cq]oIcn¡p¶Xn\mbn A©wK I½nänsb \ntbmKn¨Xv. {]apJcmb hnZym`ymk hnN£WÀ¡p ]Icw dn«. sFFFkv DtZymKØsâ t\XrXz¯n hnZym`ymk \bw cq]oIcn¡p¶Xns\Xntc I½nänbpsS cq]oIcW kab¯pXs¶ hnaÀi\§Ä DbÀ¶ncp¶p.

]pXnb tZiob hnZym`ymk \bw (F³C]n) cq]oIcn¡p¶Xn\pthWvSn kp{_ÒWyw I½nän cmPy¯pS\ofw hnZym`ymk taJebpambn _Ôs¸« \nch[n BfpIsf ]s¦Sp¸n¨p NÀ¨Ifpw hÀ¡vtjm¸pIfpw kwLSn¸n¨psh¦nepw cmPys¯ hnZym`ymk {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡p \nkvXpeamb kw`mh\IÄ \ÂIp¶ aX\yq\]£ kwLS\Isfbpw hnZym`ymk GP³knIsfbpw CXnÂ\n¶p hfsc t_m[]qÀhw Hgnhm¡n F¶ hnaÀi\w ]e tImWpIfnÂ\n¶pw DbÀ¶ncp¶p. cmPys¯ 25,000þ A[nIw hnZym`ymk Øm]\§sf \nb{´n¡p¶ {InkvXy³ aXhn`mK§fpambn _Ôs¸«v I½nän Hcphn[ NÀ¨bpw \S¯nbnà F¶ KpcpXcamb Btcm]Ww D¶bn¨Xv Im¯enIv _nj]vkv tIm¬^d³kv Hm^v C´y (kn_nknsF) BWv. ]pXpXmbn cq]oIcn¡p¶ tZiob hnZym`ymk \b¯nsâ Du¶Â hÀKobhXvIcWamWv F¶ \nco£Whpw kn_nknsF \S¯n.

Hcp hÀjs¯ NÀ¨IÄ¡pw ]T\§Ä¡pw tijw tZiob hnZym`ymk \b¯n DÄs¸Spt¯WvS 90 \nÀtZi§Ä 2016 tabv Ahkm\w kp{_ÒWyw I½nän tI{µ am\h hn`htijn a{´meb¯n\p kaÀ¸n¨p. F¶mÂ, Cu \nÀtZi§Ä ]pd¯phnSmsX clkyambn kq£n¡pIbmWp a{´mebw sNbvXXv. CXns\Xntc kp{_ÒWyw Xs¶ cwK¯phcnIbpw I½nänbpsS {][m\ in]mÀiIÄ At±lw Xs¶ ]pd¯phnSpIbpw sNbvXp. CtX¯pSÀ¶v Pqsse 30\v a{´meb¯nsâ sh_vsskän kp{_ÒWyw I½nänbpsS \nÀtZi§Ä DÄs¸Sp¯n tZiob hnZym`ymk \b¯nsâ IcSv {]kn²oIcn¨p. IcSns\Xntc s]mXpP\§fpsS \nÀtZi§fpw Bt£]§fpw kaÀ¸n¡p¶Xn\v 2016 sk]väw_À 15 hscbmWp kabw A\phZn¨ncn¡p¶Xv.

tZiob hnZym`ymk \b¯nsâ 43 t]PpIfnembpÅ IcSv ]cntim[n¨mÂ, hnZym`ymk taJebnse s]mXpþkzImcy ]¦mfn¯w, hnZym`ymk¯nsâ A´mcmjv{ShXvIcWw, 2002 se tZiob hnZym`ymk AhImi \nba¯nsâ s]mfns¨gpXÂ, tZiob ASnØm\¯nepÅ A[ym]I dn{Iq«psaâv t_mÀUpIÄ, D¶X hnZym`ymk Øm]\§fnte¡pÅ {]thi\¯n\p thWvSnbpÅ tZiob s]mXp]co£, D¶X hnZym`ymk Øm]\§fpsS KpWta· hnebncp¯en\pw A{IUntäj\pw thWvSnbpÅ \mjW Akkvsaâv B³Uv A{IUntäj³ Iu¬kn amXrIbn kvIqfpIÄ¡pthWvSnbpÅ tZiob A{IUntäj³ kwhn[m\w XpS§nb ]e \nÀtZi§fpw DsWvS¦nepw hnhmZambncn¡p¶Xv kwL]cnhmÀ AP³U \S¸m¡m³ Dt±in¨psImWvSpÅ Nne \nÀtZi§fmWv.

]pcmX\ C´ybn \ne\n¶ncp¶ thZnIv hnZym`ymk k{¼Zmb¯nsâ KpWKW§sf IcSv hnZym`ymk \b¯nsâ BapJ¯nÂXs¶ {]IoÀ¯n¡p¶pWvSv. hnZym`ymk¯nsâ ]caamb e£yw F¶Xp euInI PohnXtam hnÚm\tam Aà F¶pw kzXz¯nsâ ]caamb km£mXvImcamWv F¶pw thZnIv Nn´Ifn Du¶n IcSv hnZym`ymk \b¯nsâ BapJw ]dbpt¼mÄ AXn\p ]n¶nse AP³U hyàamIp¶p. C´y³ kwkvImc¯n Du¶nbpÅ Hcp hnZym`ymk coXnbmWv B[p\nI C´y¡v Bhiyw F¶v BapJ¯n ASnhcbn«p ]dbp¶p. F¶mÂ, AklnjvWpXbn A[njvTnXamb {]Xybimkv{Xw C´ybn ASnt¨Â¸n¡m³ {ian¡p¶hcpsS e£y§fmWv CXn Hfnªncn¡p¶Xv.

kwL]cnhmÀ apt¶m«phbv¡p¶ tZiobXmhmZw kmwkvImcnI tZiobXbmWv. Cu tZiobXmhmZ¯nsâ ASnØm\w thZImeL«w apX cq]s¸«phcp¶ BcyhXvIcW¯nepw {_mÒWhXvIcW¯nepw A[njvTnXamb C´y³ kwkvImcamWv. {]mNo\ C´ybn Akv]ÀiyXbv¡pw NmXpÀhÀW k{¼Zmb¯n\pw AklnjvWpXbv¡pw hgnh¨ thZImeL«¯nte¡pÅ Xncn¨pt]m¡mWv IcSv tZiob hnZym`ymk \b¯nsâ BapJw DZvtLmjn¡p¶Xv.

IcSv \b¯nsâ Dt±iip²nsb Xs¶ tNmZyw sN¿p¶ aäp Nne {][m\ \nÀtZi§Ä {i²n¡pI:

4:11 (3) ]dbp¶p, “"kwkvIrX`mjbv¡p {]m[m\yw \ÂIWw. C´ybnse aäp `mjIfpsS hnImk¯n\v hgnsXfn¡pIbpw cmPys¯ kmwkvImcnI sFIyw \ne\nÀ¯pIbpw sN¿p¶Xn\v CXmhiyamWv.'’’

cmPy¯nsâ `mhnsbXs¶ kzm[o\n¡p¶Xn hfsc \nÀWmbIamb hnZym`ymk \b¯n F{X henb hnUvVn¯amWp Ip¯n\nd¨ncn¡p¶Xv F¶p t\m¡pI. C´ybnse FÃm `mjIfpsSbpw hnImk¯n\p ImcWambXp kwkvIrX `mjbmWv F¶mWp kwL]cnhmÀ hmZw. kwL]cnhmdnsâ B`napJy¯n C´ybpsS kakvXtaJeIfnepw \S¶phcp¶ kwkvIrXhXvIcW¯nsâ `mKamWp kvIqÄ ]mTy]²Xnbn kwkvIrX`mjbv¡p {]m[m\yw \ÂIWsa¶ \nÀtZiw. ChnsS kwkvIrXw F¶ `mjbà {]iv\w. adn¨v `mj {]Xn\n[m\w sN¿p¶ kwkvImc¯neqsS `mhn ]uc·mcpsS Xet¨mdpIfnte¡pw t_m[aÞe¯nte¡pw IS¯nhnSm³ Dt±in¡p¶ {]Xybimkv{XamWv {]iv\w.

]mT]pkvXI§fpsS {]Xybimkv{XhXvIcW¯nsâ ^mknÌv kao]\§fmWv ChnsS ]co£n¡s¸Sp¶Xv. kwkvIrXw C´y³ `mjIfpsS aqe`mjbmWv F¶pw kwkvIrXw {]Xn\n[m\w sN¿p¶ Bcy³ kwkvImcw BZna C´y³ kwkvImcamWv F¶papÅ ImgvN¸mSpIÄ ]mT]pkvXI§fneqsS hnZymÀYnIfpsS t_m[aÞe¯n ]Xnbp¶Xp Zqchym]Iamb {]XymLmX§Ä DWvSm¡pw.

kwkvIrXw hntZi`mjbmsW¶pw `qcn]£w C´y³ `mjIfpw {ZmhnUIpe `mjIfmWv F¶papÅ bmYmÀYys¯ A«nadn¡p¶Xn\p thWvSnbmWv kwL]cnhmdnsâ Cu kwkvIrX `mjmhmZw. {]mNo\ C´ybpsS Ncn{Xw hfs¨mSn¨v BZna C´y³ kwkvImcw F¶Xv kwkvIrX `mj {]Xn\n[m\w sN¿p¶ BcyhÀK kwkvImcw BWv F¶v hcp¯n¯oÀ¡p¶Xn\pthWvSnbpÅ t_m[]qÀhamb \nÀtZiamWv IcSv tZiob hnZym`ymk \b¯nepÅXv. CXp XoÀ¨bmbpw FXnÀ¡s¸tSWvSXmWv.

cmPy¯nsâ kmwkvImcnI sFIyw \ne\nÀt¯WvSXv kwkvIrX¯neqsSbmWv F¶mWv IcSv tZiob hnZym`ymk \bw ]dbp¶Xv. _lpkzcXbnepw sshhn[y§fnepw A[njvTnXamb \m\mXz¯n GIXzw F¶ ZÀi\w DbÀ¯n¸nSn¨ tZiob ImgvN¸mSn\p hncp²amWp kwL]cnhmdnsâ kmwkvImcnI tZiobXm hmZw.

lnµp tZiobhmZ¯nsâ {][m\ hàmhmb tKmÄhm¡À 1936  {]kn²oIcn¨ ‘We or Our Nationhood Defined’ F¶ {KÙ¯n C{]Imcw ]dbp¶p: Alnµp¡Ä lnµpØm\n lnµp kwkvImchpw `mjbpw kzoIcn¡Ww. lnµpaXs¯ _lpam\n¡m\pw AXnt\mSp `b`àn ]peÀ¯m\pw ]Tn¡Ww. lnµphnsâ hwiobXsbbpw kwkvImcs¯bpw DPzeambn t{]mÕmln¸n¡pI AÃmsX asämcp Nn´sbbpw t{]mÕmln¸n¡cpXv. AXn\p Ignbp¶nsæn Hcp B\pIqeyhpw Bhiys¸SmsX Hcp {]tXyI ]cnKW\bpw B{Kln¡msX (]ucmhImiw t]mepw tNmZn¡msX) lnµpcmjv{S¯nsâ `mKambn AhÀ¡nhnsS Pohn¡mw. kwkvIrX`mjsb ap¶nÂ\nÀ¯ns¡mWvSv cmPy¯v kmwkvImcnI sFIyw cq]oIcn¡m³ {ian¡p¶ kwL]cnhmdnsâ KqVe£yw C¯c¯nsemcp kmwkvImcnI tZiobX ]p\À\nÀan¡pI F¶XmWv.

tZiob hnZym`ymk \b¯nsâ IcSptcJbnse aäp {][m\ \nÀtZi§Ä tbmK ]cnioe\w kvIqÄ ]mTy]²XnbpsS `mKam¡pI, kvIqfpIfpsS \nehmcw DbÀ¯p¶Xn\p cq]tcJ Xbmdm¡pI, am\h hn`htijn a{´meb¯nsâ Iogn Hmtcm A©phÀjw IqSpt¼mgpw hnZym`ymk I½ojs\ \nban¡pI, kvIqfpIÄ kw_Ôn¨ hnhctiJcW¯n\p tI{µ hnZym`ymk ÌmänÌn¡Â GP³kn (knCFkvF) bpsS cq]oIcWw, KpW\nehmc hnebncp¯en\pw A{IUntäj\pw thWvSnbpÅ tI{µ GP³kn XpS§nbhbmWv. cmPys¯ hnZym`ymk taJebpsS ]qÀWamb \nb{´Ww am\h hn`htijn a{´meb¯nepw F¯n¡pI F¶XmWv CXnsâ e£yw F¶p \nkwibw ]dbmw.

IcSv tcJbnse asämcp {][m\ \nÀtZiw cmPys¯ kvIqÄ hnZym`ymk taJebpsS {]hÀ¯\¯n kÀ¡mÀ CXc k¶² kwLS\IfpsS ]¦mfn¯w Dd¸phcp¯pI F¶XmWv. kÀ¡mÀ CXc k¶² kwLS\ F¶XpsImWvSv hnh£n¡p¶Xv BÀFkvFkpambn _Ôs¸« lnµp ]cnhmÀ kwLS\IfmWv. C´ybnse GItZiw 40,000 kvIqfpIÄ C¯cw kwLS\IfpsS \nb{´W¯nepWvSv F¶mWp IW¡m¡nbncn¡p¶Xv. BZnhmknþ ]nt¶m¡ taJeIfn hnZym`ymk hym]\¯n\mbn ]pXnb ]²XnIfpw tI{µ ^WvSpw hcpt¼mÄ C¯cw kwLS\IfpsS ]qÀW \nb{´Ww AXnepWvSmIpw F¶Xn kwibw thWvS.

kvIqÄ hnZym`ymk¯nepw ]mTy]²Xnbnepw kwL]cnhmÀ ]nSnapdp¡p¶Xv ZoÀLIme e£y§tfmsS Xs¶bmWv. C´ybnse hnZym`ymk taJesb ]qÀWambpw ImhnhXvIcn¡pI Xs¶bmWv CXnsâ e£yw. 1978 P\Xm]mÀ«n kÀ¡mcnsâ `mKambncp¶t¸mÄ P\kwLs¯ ap¶nÂ\nÀ¯n kwL]cnhmÀ C¯csamcp ]co£Ww \S¯nbncp¶p. ]t£ A¶s¯ tZiob hnZym`ymk \bw sk³{S AUvsshkdn t_mÀUv Hm^v FUypt¡j³ (knF_nC) AwKoIcn¡mXncp¶XpsImWvSv \nehn h¶nÃ.

]t£ Ct¸mÄ Imcy§Ä XnI¨pw hyXykvXamWv, kn_nFkvC, F³knCBÀSn, bpPnkn, sFknF¨vBÀ XpS§n C´ybnse s]mXphnZym`ymk, D¶X hnZym`ymk taJebpambn _Ôs¸«p {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ kzbw`cW Øm]\§Ä FÃmwXs¶ kwL]cnhmdnsâ ]qÀW\nb{´W¯n h¶p Ignªp. am\h hn`htijn hnIk\ a{´meb¯nÂ\n¶p kvarXn Cdm\nsb ]pd¯m¡n \mKv]qcnse BÀFkvFknsâ hnizkvX³ {]Imiv PmhtU¡sd {]XnjvTn¡p¶Xn kwL]cnhmÀ hnPbn¨p.

C´ybnse hnZym`ymk taJesb ImhnhXvIcn¡m³ kwL]cnhmÀ \S¯p¶ {ia§Äs¡Xntc iàamb {]XnIcW§Ä DWvSmIWw.

(Imªnc¸Ån FkvUn tImfPv A[ym]I\mWp teJI³)

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